2 How Diseases Spread Through feces: ParvoFeline panleukopeniaSalmonellaToxoplasmaWorm eggs (rounds, whips, hooks)Giardia and coccidiaFecal-oral – infectious organism ingested after being passed in feces
3 How Diseases Spread Fecal-oral Fecal contamination is not always obviousMany pathogens may survive for long periods of time in the environment.Parvovirus, ringworm and some worm eggs can survive for years
4 How Diseases Spread By air (aerosol) Upper respiratory infection (URI-cats)Kennel cough (dogs)
5 How Diseases Spread Aerosol Aerosols travel only 3-4 feet, so dividers between cages help12-15 fresh “air exchanges” per hour minimum is recommended“Air change” is also goodOpen windows or fan brings outside air inAfter moving through the room, another fan blows air back outsideFans blowing directly on animals can spread disease by creating aerosols
6 How Diseases Spread Animal bites or saliva Feline leukemia FIV Rabies Bacteria that can cause bite wound abscesses
7 How Diseases Spread Animal bites or saliva Saliva spread (FeLV): Grooming each otherSharing food and water bowlsFIV and Rabies require bites, not just friendly casual contactRabies can also infect by entry through broken skin or contact with mucous membranes (eyes, mouth, etc.)
8 How Diseases Spread Through direct contact Ringworm Scabies Ear mites Hookworm larvae
9 How Diseases Spread By insect “vectors” Mosquitoes spread heartworms Fleas spread tapewormsTicks spread Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, and moreVectors must be controlled in the shelterEliminate standing water (mosquitos)Treat fleas on animals and in environmentKeep grass cut to limit ticks
10 How Diseases Spread By infected objects (fomites) Ringworm spread by spores on pet hairCage walls, toys, and beddingPeoples’ hands – including staff!
11 12 Tips to Help You Avoid Zoonotic Diseases Stay current on appropriate vaccinations (tetanus, rabies)Wash hands frequently with antibacterial soapbefore eating or smokingAfter handling each animal or cageWear long pants and sturdy shoes or bootsUse glovesWear safety glasses and mask when spray cleaningDisinfect scratches and bite wounds thoroughly
12 12 Tips to Help You Avoid Zoonotic Diseases Don’t allow animals to lick your face or any open woundsLearn safe & humane animal-handling techniques, and user proper equipmentSeek assistance when handling questionable animalsReport any bites or injuries to supervisorTell your physician where you workConsider other work if you are immunosuppressed.
13 How to Prevent Disease Spread Examine each animal upon arrivalEyes, ears, nose, mouth, skin/coat, limbs, anal/genitalHydrationRectal temperatureRespirationAttitudeRECORD RESULTS!!
14 How to Prevent Disease Spread Vaccinate and deworm immediatelyQuarantine for two days or longer (preferably with solid divider between animals)2 week quarantine is idealAvoid indirect contact between animals (bowls, toys, play areas, etc.)Move into healthy animal housing area if no signs of disease
15 How to Prevent Disease Spread Observe animals every day, record changes and act when you need toSmart staff know what to look forSome sick animals don’t look sickExposed before arrival (incubating)Healthy-appearing animals can be disease “carriers”
16 How to Prevent Disease Spread Write down how cleaning and disease treatment are to be doneMake sure that everyone understands WHY, so they will be more likely to do it properly
18 What are your cages made of and what is in them? Problems for cleaning:WoodCracked floorsGravel runsChain linkToysBlankets & towelsBowls – plastic
19 What are your cages made of and what is in them? Dirt floors, grass lawns and wood are impossible to cleanGravel and can not be cleaned wellReplace once a yearSealed concrete runs work wellDrainage of water and waste are criticalScrub chain link fences and barsToys should be non-porous and disinfectedBedding changed daily
20 What About Cats? Most older shelters not designed for cats Cats are often housed with dogs, which is stressful for many of the catsSmaller rooms can hold groups of catsSpecial cages needed for catsSmaller size, stainless steelDesigned to protect the staff and the cat
21 Cat Housing Ventilation critical to reduce URI Air exchange can be as simple as a fan in a window pulling air to the outsideMinimize moistureIdeally, there should be at least three cat holding areasAdoption (healthy cats)IsolationQuarantine (+ healthy hold)Ideally, litters should not be mixed
22 Cat Colonies Allow furniture, exercise, and company of other cats Reduces stressRisk of URI increasedNo strays until hold periodcompletedScreen colony candidates for health, test for FeLV & FIV, vaccinate, dewormMonitor for health and behavior problems; remove if necessary
23 Cat Colonies House by life stage groups Don’t add new cats as animals leave the groupAllow group to dwindle down until 1-2 left that can be moved to cagesDisinfect and start over with a new group
24 Isolation and Quarantine They are not the same!Both are importantCombining these areas will create health problems in the shelterNot having these areas at all will create even more problems!
25 Quarantine Housing for incubation suspects, to watch for disease Exposed to diseasenew animalsRabies observationPregnant & newborn animalsRecuperating animalsQuiet, safe, away from public view/trafficIdeally, separate air flow coming from healthy parts of building and vented outsideQuarantine is for healthy animals!
26 Isolation Housing for sick animals Prevent disease transmission & enable treatmentQuiet, safe, away from public view/traffic
27 Preventing Disease Transmission During Euthanasia Euthanize unhealthy animals firstAvoid handling other animals directly after euthanasia
28 Things that Affect Overall Disease Control in the Shelter Ventilation—12-15 air exchanges per hourAir flow and human trafficfrom younger to older life stagesfrom healthy to sick areasTemperature control—minimum of degrees, maximum of 85 degreesWarmer for puppies and kittensHeaters, A/C, vents and filters cleaned regularlyDrafts—avoid
29 Things that Affect Overall Disease Control in the Shelter Humidity—should be below 50 percentLight—diffused is bestNoise reduction reduces animal stressInsulate between metal cagesProper nutrition is critical for healthy immune systemThe best food you can affordMake sure animals are being fed enoughHuman companionship for those animals who want it
31 Two Steps to Sanitation Cleaning(To rid of dirt or other impurities)Disinfecting(To destroy or eliminate infection by reducing the number of pathogens present)
32 Disinfectant Definition: Chemical agent that is applied to inanimate objects or surfaces to kill pathogenic microorganisms, including bacteria, but not usually bacterial spores. Fungi and some viruses are often killed by disinfectants also.
33 Properties of Disinfectants Bacteriostatic (capable of inhibiting or preventing growth of bacteria)Bactericidal (capable of killing bacteria)Fungicidal (capable of killing fungi and yeast)Virucidal (capable of killing viruses)Sporocidal (capable of killing spores)Oocidal (capable of killing oocysts)
34 Types of Disinfectants Most common types are phenols, quaternary ammoniums, halogens, biguanides and peroxygens.Want one that acts fast, kills many types of germs, and penetratesMust also be nonirritating, nontoxic, nonstaining, noncorrosive, inexpensive, etc.No one product meets all criteria, but peroxygens are a current favorite.
35 Safety of Chemicals Safe for animals and humans Use according to directionsComply with OSHA and EPA regulationsStore separately from food and beddingImproper use can be dangerous
36 Phenols Example - Lysol Most organisms are killed by phenols Fast-acting, work well in hard water, most effective in acidic environmentsMay be corrosive, toxic, smellyToxic to catsNewer types (substitued phenols) are better, but still not for catsLysol is an example of a phenol.
37 Phenols Effective against: Canine parainfluenza Rabies Corona Canine distemperBacteriaFungiNot so good for:ParvovirusHepatitis virusAdenovirusesBacterial spores
38 Halogens Include bleach and iodine Bleach is quickly inactivated by organic matterOnly clean surfaces should be bleachedInexpensive, act rapidly, best in weakly acidic environmentsCorrosive to many metal surfaces including drain pipes
39 Sodium Hypochlorite (Bleach) - a halogen - Dilute from 1 to 4 ounces per gallon of water for best effect5% bleach is the stock solutionDiluted 1:32 with waterFumes may irritate skin and respiratory tracts of staff and animalsContact time = 10 minutes“Chlorox Ultra” formulation (lye added) difficult to rinse off and not recommended for use around pets or childrenEspecially dangerous to cats
40 Halogens Effective against: Not so good for: Canine parainfluenza RabiesCoronaCanine distemperBacteriaFungiParvoHepatitisAdenovirusesURI virusesFeline leukemiaNot so good for:Bacterial spores, unless prolonged contactWorm eggsCoccidia oocystsNeed stronger dilution for ringworm (1:10)
41 Quaternary AmmoniumsMost effective in alkaline environments (don’t work well in hard water)Act fast, low tissue toxicity, not very corrosiveSoap and organic matter quickly inactivate quatsMore expensive
42 Quaternary Ammoniums“New” quats not effective against canine parvovirus or feline calicivirus, despite manufacturer’s claimsContact with full-strength solutions will burn skin and mucous membranesCats may develop ulcers of mouth and esophagus if they ingest even diluted amountsMost popular versions: Parvosol and Roccal-D PlusMost require one-ounce-per-gallon dilution, but read label
43 Quaternary Ammoniums Effective against: Not so good for: Canine parainfluenzaRabiesCoronaCanine distemperFeline leukemiaBacteriaFungiNot so good for:ParvoURI virusesHepatitisAdenovirusesBacterial sporesWorm eggsCoccidia oocystsRingworm
44 Biguanides Nolvasan (chlorhexidine) is most common Work best in alkaline environmentsNot very toxic to tissue, organic matter limits effectivenessExpensive
45 Biguanides Effective against: Not so good for: Canine parainfluenza RabiesCoronaCanine distemperSome types of bacteriaFungiNot so good for:ParvoHepatitisAdenovirusesURI virusesBacterial spores
46 Peroxygens & Accelerated Peroxides peroxygens Aka – potassium peroxymonosulfate disinfectantsHave come about in the past 10 yearsExamples – Virkon and Trifectant1% dilution recommendedHave to mix fresh solution weekly from the stock powderLess irritating and corrosive than bleachWorks better with small amounts of organic debris than quats or bleachLysol is an example of a phenol.
47 Peroxygens & Accelerated Peroxides Have come about in the past 5 yearsExamples – AccelLess irritating and corrosive than bleachWorks better with small amounts of organic debris than quats or bleachHas detergent properties for cleaning like quatsThe first disinfectant to be effective with short contact time (1 minute)Liquid can be used in sprayers and other apportioning unitsLysol is an example of a phenol.
48 Peroxygens & Accelerated Peroxides Effective against:URI virusesRabiesCoronaCanine distemperBacteriaFungiParvovirusCalicivirusadenovirusesNot so good for:Worm eggsoocysts
49 Using Disinfectants Things to consider: Exposure timeTemperatureConcentrationUse hot water (except when diluting bleach)Read label for recommendations and follow them carefully
50 Cleaning Written protocols are crucial Rotate disinfectants Clean from healthy to sickDegreaserQuat (let sit 10 minutes)Bleach (let sit minutes)ALWAYS RINSE!!Clean younger to olderNever mix bleach other disinfectants (ammonia gas)
51 Cleaning Supplies Right tools Make sure they are clean (180F) Scrub brushesGlassesGlovesApronssqueegeesMake sure they are clean (180F)Enough for everyoneEach area has its own toolsIn good repair
52 Cleaning Oversight Training Understand WHY Accountability Pride in workSay “thank you” for a job well doneHave a “scrub fest”
53 Cleaning Dog Cages Remove dog from run Remove food and water bowls – clean or change themScoop poop and other materials in cageIf necessary, use detergent to scrub before disinfectingRINSE
54 Cleaning Dog Cages Spray disinfectant and scrub again Rinse cage squeegee dry
55 Cleaning Dog Cages Replace toys and bedding Bedding for litters of puppies may need to be changed more than once dailyReturn dog to run
56 Cleaning Cat Cages without moving Cats Leave cat in cage, or place in carrier or twin cageWipe down with disinfectant and paper towelsChange bedding if neededFood/water/litterLess moisture = lower humidity = reduced URI risk
57 Cleaning Cat Cages by Moving Cats Remove cat from cage – place in holding cageScrub thoroughlyCage wallsCage doorsCage CEILING & floorRinse and dry cageBeddingFood/water/litterReset cage, return cat and disinfect holding cage
58 Hand Washing Volunteers to remind public Post signs (nice ones) to remind visitors to wash hands between touching animalsHand sanitizer in each room