Short Message System (SMS) Mobile Maximum of 160 characters Very popular among the 15-24 age group Asynchronous Discreet Language culture with slang and abbreviations
% SMS among mobile phone users Source: Smoreda, Z., Thomas, F. (2000): ”Use of SMS in Europe”
The problem with SMS Low efficiency (WPM = 7.93) Difficult to learn Few and small buttons Mode-dependent No mental models to build on
Solutions to mobile texting Virtual QWERTY Speech recognition Hand printing (Graffiti) OPTI, FOCL, ABC- tapping etc. BUT: –still not truly mobile and discreet –may be difficult to learn –not always 100 % reliable –Far from QWERTY- efficiency ?
Gazetalk Digital cameras (web and Firewire) Type-to-talk Browser E-mail Adaptive word prediction Freeware and Open Source Danish, English and Japanese versions by 2003
Gaze based interaction First system for people with disabilities in 1990 (Frey et. al.) Several efficient systems available today - used by e.g. people with ALS Why then yet another system?
Problems with existing systems –Quite a large portion of users is not able to get a sufficiently good calibration –Most systems are only for stationary, indoor use –Requires a rather complicated installation by computer experts –The price is prohibitive (>50.000 d.kr. + PC) which prevents potential users from testing whether this interaction mode would work for them
Question Date: Tue, 06 Feb 2001 14:41:07 +0200 Hi there I stay in South Africa and my father has had a brain stem stroke. He cannot move or speak. He can communicate with his eyes. We are currently using an alphabet chart, but it takes too long and he gets tired quickly. I'm looking for some type of EyeMouse. Something we can plug into a PC, Design like a virtual keyboard. Can you please advise me. I will appreciate any help. Thanks Nuno Lourenco
Answer Dear Nuno, I'm sorry to tell you but eye trackers that are accurate enough for your father to indicate at which letter your father is looking at are much too expensive and are not available for private use. If your father still can hear, you can ask him to look left or right or up or down under certain conditions. It may work as a yes or no. -- Lo Bour, PhD Department of Neurology/Clinical Neurophysiology, H2-222 Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam
Ongoing Experiments 12 Japanese students 4 hours of training Typed 20 JP characters per minute ~10 WPM with gaze (tested with ”Quick glance”) 12 % errors - 3 % with mouse
Comments from novice users of gaze dwell time typing: ”A bit difficult to get used to not dwelling at un-intended buttons.. reacts in panic” ”Difficult to orient yourself without activating something” ”It can be hard to keep starring at the buttons you wanth”
Loose coupling of gaze and pointer 35 mouse activations analysed: –40% gaze remaind at dwelling key –40% went to other key durring dwell periode –12% went to text field durring dwell periode –8% the eye was at another key durring all the dwell periode
Theoretical upper limit ”Perfect” Eye tracker and trained user, utilizing all the predictions : –2 characters per activation –1,2 seconds per activation (500 ms dwells. cf. Japanese results) = 100 characters per minute = 20 wpm, = 24 wpm, 300 ms dwells
Reaching for the moon? People talk at 160 to 200 WPM !!!! Non-typist write at 20 - 35 WPM AAC typing systems 2 - 26 WPM (1977-1985) SMS (Multitap) at 8 WPM Eye typing systems from 1 to 7 WPM Birger Bergmann Jeppesen peaked at 12 WPM (Wiwik + QuickGlance)
How fast is fast enough? ”It should be clear that speed, in itself, should not be an object, but rather proficiency and ease of operation. On the other hand, when there is a lot to say, or when there is a need for extensive personal interchange, a minimum speed of 25 - 30 wpm is really needed to keep the thought moving” William G. Pierpont(2001): ”The art & skill of Radio-Telegraphy”
Other approaches Dario D. Salvucci (1999): 822 ms pr. character, 10 seconds to find the right word in a data base with 1000 words. User performance 9 - 28 wpm.
DASHER Developed by David Mackay, Cambridge University, with Stephen Hawking ”in mind” 25 WPM after one hour 34 WPM when expert Requires a ”Drivers license” ”Fast hands-free writing by gaze direction” Nature 418:838 (August 2002)
User needs Fast Robust Daily expressions Mobile Changes with progress of diseases Affordable Video cam Web cam
Progress of ALS disease Loss of voice Reduced control of arms and legs Reduced control of fingers Reduced head movements Just eye movements
Gaze interaction for special tasks Industrial inspection Field- communication Security Medical information systems
”Hands-free”-gaze interaction for all Private mobile- communication: –Faster than SMS –Note taking during video conferences and –Dynamic indication of attention from several participants
Transfer of innovations ALS- Patient: –No voice –Just head- or gaze control –Imprecise pointing –Acceleration of text- input Mobile user –Noise or need for private communication –Hands-free interaction –Shaky environments or small displays –Word prediction on mobile units with limited number of keys
www.gazetalk.org: The IT-University of Copenhagen Tokyo Institute of Technology The Danish Muscular Dystrophy Association …and hopefully more to come Exhibition at the IST Conference, Copenhagen, November 4 -6, 2002.