Presentation on theme: "Stock-based Compensation and Tax Implications under ASC 740-718 (f/k/a FAS 123R)"— Presentation transcript:
Stock-based Compensation and Tax Implications under ASC 740-718 (f/k/a FAS 123R)
Page 2 San Jose State University Overview of tax treatment ► Statutory stock options, e.g., incentive stock options, generally do not yield a tax deduction ► Deduction in the case of a disqualifying disposition if employee sells stock within one year of the date of exercise and two years of the date of grant ► Tax deduction is equal to the stock price on the date of exercise less the exercise price (i.e., the intrinsic spread) ► Nonqualified stock options will generally result in a tax deduction equal to the stock price on the date of exercise less the exercise price (W-2 comp) ► Restricted stock option will generally result in a tax deduction equal to the stock price on the vesting date
Page 3 San Jose State University Recording of tax effects Under either ASC 740-718 [FAS 123R] or the intrinsic value method (APB 25), deferred tax assets (DTA) for stock-based awards are recognized for book purposes only for awards that normally result in a tax deduction Nonqualified stock options Tax deduction equal to intrinsic value on the date of exercise Nonvested stock (e.g., restricted stock) Tax deduction equal to the stock price on the date of vesting Consider tax rules in foreign jurisdictions Statutory Foreign Deduction Stock option recharge agreements
Page 4 San Jose State University ASC 740-718 [FAS 123R] income tax considerations ► No change in US income tax treatment ► Tax deduction is generally realized when the option is exercised, stock is received and the employee recognizes income ► Book-tax difference: ► Amount of compensation: ► Book – fair value of option measured at grant date, vs. ► Tax – intrinsic value measured at exercise date or vest date ► Timing of compensation: ► Book – amortized over service period (vesting period), vs. ► Tax - upon exercise (Non Qualified stock), Disqualified Disposition (ISO/ESPP), or vesting of option (Restricted Stock)
Page 5 San Jose State University ASC 740-718 [FAS 123R] – Calculating deferred taxes ► Calculating deferred taxes for deductible awards ► Recognized compensation cost for awards that will result in a tax deduction multiplied by entity’s statutory tax rate ► Deductible temporary difference, set up deferred tax asset for the types of equity awards where the presumption is they will result in a future tax deduction (such as NQ and RS, See SC 740-718-25-2) ► The presumption is ISO and ESPP grants WILL NOT result in a tax deduction. (See ASC 740-718-25-3)
Page 6 San Jose State University Example 1 ► Assume: ► 10,000 nonqualified options with 4-year cliff vesting ► Estimate that 8,000 options will ultimately vest ► Strike price of options – $3 ► Fair value of options – $6 ► Statutory tax rate – 35%
Page 7 San Jose State University Example 1 (cont.) ► Annual compensation cost: ► $12,000 = ($6 x 8,000) ÷ 4 years Annual deferred tax benefit: ► $4,200 = $12,000 x 35% ► Annual journal entries ► Dr. Compensation cost (P&L)$12,000 Cr. Additional paid-in capital $12,000 (To record FV book stock based compensation) ► Dr. Current income tax expense (P&L) $4,200 Cr. Income tax payable$4,200 (To record current tax expense) ► Dr. Deferred tax asset$4,200 Cr. Deferred income tax benefit (P&L)$4,200 (To record DTA at the end of Year 1)
Page 8 San Jose State University Example 1 (cont.) ► 2,000 options are exercised in Year 2 ► Market price of stock on the date of exercise is $20 per share ► Strike price is $3 per share – intrinsic value is $17 per share ► Journal Entries ► Dr. Deferred Income Tax Expense $4,200 Cr. DTA (FV$6 x 2,000 shrs x 35%)$4,200 (To reverse the previously set up DTA) ► Dr. Tax Payable$11,900 Cr. Current Tax Expense$4,200 Cr. APIC $7,700 (To record the tax effect of the option exercise)
Page 9 San Jose State University Valuation allowance on DTA ► Valuation allowance on DTAs (740-718-30-1,2) ► Record a valuation allowance if it is more likely than not that some portion of the DTA will not be realized ► Consider whether future taxable income will be sufficient to realize the DTA ► Changes in the intrinsic value of the award are not considered when determining if a valuation allowance is required
Page 10 San Jose State University In a Full Valuation Allowance Case ► Paragraph 35-5  of ASC 740-718 [FAS123R] provides that the write-off of a deferred tax asset is net of any related valuation allowance. ► Thus, when an award is settled and the award’s related deferred tax asset has a full valuation allowance recorded against it, a shortfall does not occur because there is no deferred tax asset to write off.
Page 11 San Jose State University Realization of excess tax benefits ► Tax deduction when options are exercised ► If tax deduction is greater than recognized compensation cost: ► Excess tax benefit recorded as increase to APIC ► Only record excess tax benefit if it is realized (ASC 740-718-25-10 and ASC 718-20-55-20 (f/k/a FAS123R Footnote 82) ► When the benefit reduces current taxes payable (i.e., cash tax savings) ► If company has an NOL that is increased by the deduction, the benefit is not realized and the excess tax benefit is not recorded in APIC (but must be tracked offline for later potential realization/recognition) ► Excess stock option deduction that can potentially be used to offset (reduce) uncertain tax positions[FIN 48 liabilities] is not considered “realized” (but, can be used for purpose of calculating the related[FIN 48] interest liabilities) ► Under APB 25, an excess tax benefit that increased an NOL was also recorded as increase to APIC (i.e., DTA was recorded)
Page 12 San Jose State University Realization of excess tax benefits (cont.) ► Resource Group meeting believes that there are two approaches to determine the timing and the amount of the “excess stock option deduction” realized. ► With and without approach ► Follow the Tax Law approach ► (See Class exercise)
Page 13 San Jose State University Realization of excess tax benefits (example) – Follow the tax law approach
Page 14 San Jose State University Realization of excess tax benefits (example) – with and without option approach
Page 15 San Jose State University R&D Cost Share and Management fee charge (§1.482-7A and §1.482-9) ► 1.482-7A R&D cost share: U.S. tax regulations specify the expenses that must be included in a pool of shared costs; such expenses include costs related to stock-based-compensation awards granted in tax years beginning after August 26, 2003. ► The tax regulations provide two methods for determining the amount and timing of stock-based compensation that is to be included in the pool of shared costs ► the “exercise method”: Under the exercise method, the timing and amount of the allocated expense is based on the intrinsic value of the award on the exercise date. ► the “grant method”: Companies that elect to follow the grant method use grant-date fair values that are determined based on the amount of U.S. GAAP compensation costs. Companies must include such costs in U.S. taxable income regardless of whether the options are ultimately exercised by the holder and result in an actual U.S. tax deduction. (Full tax deduction will be taken later on the U.S. tax return if the options result in tax deduction) ► 1.482-9(k)(2) Management fee charge: Reference to the GAAP or federal income tax rules (i.e. Book FV or Tax deduction) as the starting point to determine the cost to be allocated. (Years beginning after December 31 st, 2006)
Page 16 San Jose State University Cost sharing (Example) Facts: ► Company A, which is located in the U.S., enters into a cost-sharing arrangement with its subsidiary, Company B, which is located in Singapore ► Under the arrangement, the two Companies share costs associated with the R&D of certain technology ► Company B reimburses Company A for 30% of the R&D costs incurred by Company A ► In 2006 A Company recorded share based compensation book charges of $100 ► In 2007, the awards are exercised with an intrinsic value of $150 ► U.S. cost share 70%, Singapore cost share 30% ► U.S. Tax rate: 40% and Singapore tax rate: 0%
Page 17 San Jose State University Cost Sharing (Example) continued
Page 18 San Jose State University Discrete Items for Tax Provisions ► Disqualifying dispositions of statutory options (ISO and ESPP) ► Tax benefits to extent of prior book charge (was a Perm add back) ► Deficiencies not covered by APIC pool ► Debit to income tax expense on DTA reversal ► Recovery of deficiency due to subsequent excess benefits generated within the same fiscal year ► Reversal of income tax expense ► Revaluation of DTA due to change in tax rate (changes in the cost share arrangement) ► In period of enactment change
Page 19 San Jose State University Cash Flow Statement In a significant change in practice, cash retained by the company as a result of excess tax benefits relating to share-based payments to employees, as well as nonemployees, would be presented in the statement of cash flows as a financing cash inflow (and a corresponding reduction in operating cash flows). Previously, the cash retained from excess tax benefits was presented in operating cash flows along with other tax cash flows pursuant to Issue 00-15. It should also be noted that the calculation of excess tax benefits that must be presented as a financing cash flow must be performed on an option-by-option basis. That is, while the credits recognized in additional paid-in capital during a reporting period (see Section S10.3.1) may be reduced by write-offs of deferred tax assets to additional paid-in capital (i.e., presented net, as discussed in Section S10.3.2), the amount presented in the statement of cash flows as a financing activity is based on a gross calculation without offset from any deferred tax asset write-offs to additional paid-in capital. See ASC718-20-55-24 and ASC 718-20-55-23
Page 20 San Jose State University Cashflow statement Example (stock option impact)
Page 21 San Jose State University EPS ► ASC 260 [FAS 128] provides guidance on the computation and disclosure of EPS and defines EPS as “the amount of earnings attributable to each share of common stock.” ► Assumed proceeds under the treasury stock method ► Because stock based compensation expense will be recognized in the income statement under ASC 718 [FAS 123(R)], the numerator (net income) for both the basic EPS and diluted EPS computations will be reduced. ► Basic EPS is computed by dividing income that is available to common shareholders by the weighted average number of common shares that are outstanding during the period, while diluted EPS gives effect to all dilutive potential common shares that are outstanding during a period.
Page 22 San Jose State University EPS ► The assumed proceeds under the treasury stock method of ASC 260- 10-45-29 include: ► The purchase price that the grantee will pay in the future, if any (e.g., the exercise price of a stock option); ► Compensation cost for future service that the company has not yet recognized; and ► Any windfall tax benefits (tax effected amount) that would be credited to APIC when the award generates a tax deduction. If there would be a charge to APIC (i.e., shortfall), such an amount would be a reduction of proceeds. Shortfalls that would be charged to income tax expense (i.e., because there is no pool of windfall tax benefits) should not be included as a reduction of proceeds. ► Companies should not include potential windfall tax benefits if the award does not ordinarily result in a tax deduction (ASC 740-718-25-3, ASC 740- 718-25-10 (f/k/a FAS 123(R) Footnote 82).
Page 23 San Jose State University EPS ► Applying the treasury stock method to in-the-money options could be anti- dilutive if the sum of the proceeds, including the unrecognized compensation, exceeds the average stock price. In this case, those options would be excluded from the calculation of diluted EPS.
Page 24 San Jose State University EPS – Treasury method example ► 1,000 nonqualified stock options granted on January 1, 2007 with an exercise price of $10 ► Each share has $5 FV determined at the grant date ► Options vest straight line over 5 years ► Market price as of 1/1/07 is $20 and as of 12/31/07 is $26. Average market price of 2007 is $23. ► Tax rate is 40% ► The Company has sufficient taxable income to realize any windfalls generated from the exercise of the award ► How many shares of stock options (if dilutive) should be included in diluted EPS for the year ended December 31, 2007.
Page 25 San Jose State University EPS – Treasury method example (Solution) ► Hypothetical average “unrecognized compensation for 2007 is (1,000 x $5)/5 = $1,000 per year. So unrecognized as of 1/1/2007 is $5,000 and as of 12/31/07 is $4,000. The average is $4,500 ► Hypothetical proceeds from exercise price = $10 x 1000=10,000 ► Hypothetical tax benefit at 12/31/07 = (average market price $23 – exercise price $10) x 1,000 shares x 40% = $5,200 ► Hypothetical windfall = the tax benefit of $5,200 less hypothetical DTA ($5 x 1000 x 40% = $2,000) = $3,200 ► Total Assumed proceeds = $4,500 + $10,000 + $3,200 = $17,700 ► Buy back $17,700 / $23 = 769.56 shares ► Incremental shares to be included in the dilutive EPS = 1,000 (issued upon exercise, dilutive) – 769.56 (buy back shares, anti-dilutive) = 230.43 (overall dilutive)
Page 26 San Jose State University Summary ► ASC 740-718 [FAS123R] imposed significant impact on financial reporting and income tax accounting (for both U.S. and Foreign jurisdictions) ► Deficiencies around financial reporting and disclosures around this area ► Planning around stock options and income tax accounting implications ► Focus on proof of ending SBC-related deferred tax asset