Presentation on theme: "Summary Purpose of efficient cash management."— Presentation transcript:
1Summary Purpose of efficient cash management. Methods for speeding up the collection of accounts receivable and methods for controlling cash disbursements.Remote and controlled disbursement,How electronic data interchange (EDI) and outsourcing each relates to a company’s cash collections and disbursements.
2Cash and Marketable Securities Management Chapter 9 (II)Cash and Marketable Securities Management
3Learning Outcomes After studying Chapter 9, you should be able to: List and explain the motives for holding cash.Understand the purpose of efficient cash management.Describe methods for speeding up the collection of accounts receivable and methods for controlling cash disbursements.Differentiate between remote and controlled disbursement,Discuss how electronic data interchange (EDI) and outsourcing each relates to a company’s cash collections and disbursements.Identify the key variables that should be considered before purchasing any marketable securities.Define the most common money-market instruments that a marketable securities portfolio manager would consider for investment.Describe the three segments of the marketable securities portfolio and note which securities are most appropriate for each segment and why.
4OutsourcingOutsourcing -- Subcontracting a certain business operation to an outside firm, instead of doing it in-house.AdvantagesImproves company efficiencyQuality improvement through specializationReducing and controlling operating costsFreeing resources for other purposes
5Cash Balances to Maintain The optimal level of cash should include: (1) the transaction balances required when cash management is efficient. (2) the compensating balance requirements of commercial banks.
6Investment in Marketable Securities Having cash available in the accounts for longer periods of time requires efficient investment decisions in the marketable securities.Marketable Securities are shown on the balance sheet as:1. Cash equivalents if maturities are less than three 3 months at the time of acquisition.2. Short-term investments if remaining maturities are less than one 1 year.
7The Marketable Securities Portfolio Ready Cash Segment (R$)Optimal balance of marketable securities held to take care of probable deficiencies in the firm’s cash account.F$R$C$
8The Marketable Securities Portfolio Controllable Cash Segment (C$)Marketable securities held for meeting controllable (knowable) outflows, such as taxes and dividends.F$R$C$
9The Marketable Securities Portfolio Free Cash Segment (F$)“Free” marketable securities (that is, available for as yet unassigned purposes).F$R$C$
10Variables in Marketable Securities Selection SafetyRefers to the likelihood of getting back the same number of dollars you originally invested, i.e. recovery of principal invested.Marketability (or Liquidity)The ability to sell a significant volume of securities in a short period of time in the secondary market without significant price concession.
11Variables in Marketable Securities Selection Interest Rate (or Yield) RiskThe variability in the market price of a security caused by changes in interest rates.MaturityRefers to the remaining life of the security.
12Common Money Market Instruments All government securities and short-term corporate obligations.Treasury Bills (T-bills): Short-term, non-interest bearing obligations of the U.S. Treasury issued at a discount and redeemed at maturity for full face value. Minimum $1,000 amount and $1,000 increments thereafter.
13T-Bills and Bond Equivalent Yield (BEY) Method: BEY = [ (FA – PP) / (PP) ] *[ 365 / DM ]FA: face amount of securityPP: purchase price of securityDM: days to maturity of securityA $1,000, 26-week T-bill is purchased for $956 – what is its BEY?BEY = [ (1000 – 956) / (956) ] *[ 365 / 182 ]BEY = 9.23%
14T-Bills and Equivalent Annual Yield (EAY) Method: EAY = (1 + [ BEY / (365 / DM) ] )365/DM - 1BEY: bond equivalent yield from the previous slideDM: days to maturity of securityCalculate the EAY of the $1,000, 26-week T-bill purchased for $956 described on the previous slide?EAY = (1 + [.0923/(365 / 182)])365/EAY = 9.44%
15Common Money Market Instruments Treasury Notes: Medium-term obligations of the U.S. Treasury with a 2-10 years’ original maturity.Treasury Bonds: Long-term obligations of the U.S. Treasury having more than 10 years’ original maturity.
16Common Money Market Instruments Repurchase Agreements (RPs; repos): Agreements to buy securities (usually Treasury bills) and resell them at a higher price at a later date, the increment in price is linked to the days to maturity.Bankers’ Acceptances (BAs): Short-term promissory trade notes for which a bank promises to pay the holder the face amount at maturity. These notes are sold at a discount are repurchased at face value.
17Common Money Market Instruments Commercial Paper: Short-term, unsecured promissory notes generally issued by large corporations. The largest dollar-volume instrument.Federal Agency Securities: Debt securities issued by federal agencies and government-sponsored enterprises (GSEs).
18Common Money Market Instruments Negotiable Certificate of Deposit: A large-denomination investment in a negotiable time deposit at a commercial bank or savings institution paying a fixed or variable rate of interest for a specified period of time.
19Selecting Securities for the Portfolio Segments Ready Cash Segment (R$)Safety and ability to convert to cash is most important.Select Government Treasuries for this segment.F$R$C$
20Selecting Securities for the Portfolio Segments Controllable Cash Segment (C$)Marketability less important. Possibly match time needs.May select repos, Bankers Acceptance notes, for this segment.F$R$C$
21Selecting Securities for the Portfolio Segments Free Cash Segment (F$)Base choice on yield subject to risk-return trade-offs.Any money market instrument may be selected for this segment.F$R$C$
26SummaryKey variables that should be considered before purchasing any marketable securities.Common money-market instruments that a marketable securities portfolio manager would consider for investment.Three segments of the marketable securities portfolio and which securities are most appropriate for each segment and why.