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Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill /Irwin 6-1 Chapter Six Bond Markets.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill /Irwin 6-1 Chapter Six Bond Markets."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill /Irwin 6-1 Chapter Six Bond Markets

2 Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill /Irwin 6-2 Chapter Outline 1.Overview 2.Treasury Notes & Bonds 3.Munis 4.Corporate Bonds 5.Bond Rating 6.International Bond Markets 1.Overview 2.Treasury Notes & Bonds 3.Munis 4.Corporate Bonds 5.Bond Rating 6.International Bond Markets

3 Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill /Irwin Overview of the Bond Markets A bond is a promise to make periodic coupon payments and to repay principal at maturity; breech of this promise is an event of default Bonds carry original maturities greater than one year so bonds are instruments of the capital markets Issuers are corporations and government units A bond is a promise to make periodic coupon payments and to repay principal at maturity; breech of this promise is an event of default Bonds carry original maturities greater than one year so bonds are instruments of the capital markets Issuers are corporations and government units

4 Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill /Irwin 6-4 Bond Market Participants The major issuers of debt market securities are federal, state and local governments and corporations The major purchasers of capital market securities are households, businesses, government units and foreign investors Businesses and financial firms (e.g., banks, insurance companies, mutual funds) are the major suppliers of funds for all three types of bonds The major issuers of debt market securities are federal, state and local governments and corporations The major purchasers of capital market securities are households, businesses, government units and foreign investors Businesses and financial firms (e.g., banks, insurance companies, mutual funds) are the major suppliers of funds for all three types of bonds

5 Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill /Irwin 6-5 Bond Market Instruments Outstanding, ($Bn)

6 Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill /Irwin Treasury Notes and Bonds T-notes and T-bonds issued by the U.S. Treasury to finance the national debt and other federal government expenditures Backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government and are default risk free Pay relatively low rates of interest (yields to maturity) Given their longer maturity, not entirely risk free due to interest rate fluctuations Pay coupon interest (semiannually): notes have maturities from 1-10 years; bonds years T-notes and T-bonds issued by the U.S. Treasury to finance the national debt and other federal government expenditures Backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government and are default risk free Pay relatively low rates of interest (yields to maturity) Given their longer maturity, not entirely risk free due to interest rate fluctuations Pay coupon interest (semiannually): notes have maturities from 1-10 years; bonds years

7 Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill /Irwin 6-7 Composition of the U.S. National Debt ($Bn)

8 Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill /Irwin 6-8 Primary Market in Treasury Notes & Bonds Similar to the primary market T-bill sales, the Treasury sells T-notes and bonds through competitive and noncompetitive auctions Auction Pattern for Treasury Notes and bonds Security Purchase Minimum General Auction Schedule 2-year note $1,000 Monthly 5-year note $1,000 Feb, May-Aug, Nov 10-year note $1,000 Feb, May-Aug, Nov Similar to the primary market T-bill sales, the Treasury sells T-notes and bonds through competitive and noncompetitive auctions Auction Pattern for Treasury Notes and bonds Security Purchase Minimum General Auction Schedule 2-year note $1,000 Monthly 5-year note $1,000 Feb, May-Aug, Nov 10-year note $1,000 Feb, May-Aug, Nov

9 Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill /Irwin 6-9 Secondary Market in Treasury Notes & Bonds Most secondary market trading occurs directly through brokers and dealers Wall Street Journal shows full list of Treasury securities that trade daily Most secondary market trading occurs directly through brokers and dealers Wall Street Journal shows full list of Treasury securities that trade daily

10 Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill /Irwin 6-10 Coupon rate set at time of auction and fixed for life Par value adjusted for inflation based on the Consumer Price Index Semi-annual coupon payments are based on the inflation adjusted par value At maturity investor receives the inflation adjusted par value Coupon rate set at time of auction and fixed for life Par value adjusted for inflation based on the Consumer Price Index Semi-annual coupon payments are based on the inflation adjusted par value At maturity investor receives the inflation adjusted par value (TIPS) Treasury Inflation Protected Securities

11 Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill /Irwin 6-11 Treasury STRIPS Separate Trading of Registered Interest and Principal Securities A treasury security in which the individual interest payments are separated from the principal payment Effectively creates sets of securities--one for each semiannual interest payment one one for the final principal payment Often referred to as “Treasury zero-coupon bonds” Created by U.S. Treasury in response to separate trading of treasury security principal and interest developed by securities firms; only available through FIs and government securities brokers Separate Trading of Registered Interest and Principal Securities A treasury security in which the individual interest payments are separated from the principal payment Effectively creates sets of securities--one for each semiannual interest payment one one for the final principal payment Often referred to as “Treasury zero-coupon bonds” Created by U.S. Treasury in response to separate trading of treasury security principal and interest developed by securities firms; only available through FIs and government securities brokers

12 Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill /Irwin Municipal Bonds (Munis) Securities issued by state and local governments to fund either temporary imbalances between operating expenditures and receipts or to finance long-term capital outlays for activities such as school construction, public utility construction or transportation systems Tax receipts or revenues generated are the source of repayment Attractive to household investors because interest (but not capital gains) are tax exempt Securities issued by state and local governments to fund either temporary imbalances between operating expenditures and receipts or to finance long-term capital outlays for activities such as school construction, public utility construction or transportation systems Tax receipts or revenues generated are the source of repayment Attractive to household investors because interest (but not capital gains) are tax exempt

13 Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill /Irwin 6-13 Types of Municipal Bonds General Obligation Bonds –bonds backed by the full faith and credit of the issuer Revenue Bonds –bonds sold to finance a specific revenue generating project and are backed by cash flows from that project General Obligation Bonds –bonds backed by the full faith and credit of the issuer Revenue Bonds –bonds sold to finance a specific revenue generating project and are backed by cash flows from that project

14 Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill /Irwin 6-14 Tax Exemption and Muni Yields i a = i b (1 - t) Where: i a = After-tax (equivalent tax exempt) rate of return on a taxable bond i b = Before-tax rate of return on a taxable bond t = Income tax rate of the marginal bond holder Example: You can invest in taxable corporate bonds that are paying 10% annually. Your marginal tax rate is 28%. The after- tax rate of return on the taxable bond is: 10%(1-.28) = 7.2% i a = i b (1 - t) Where: i a = After-tax (equivalent tax exempt) rate of return on a taxable bond i b = Before-tax rate of return on a taxable bond t = Income tax rate of the marginal bond holder Example: You can invest in taxable corporate bonds that are paying 10% annually. Your marginal tax rate is 28%. The after- tax rate of return on the taxable bond is: 10%(1-.28) = 7.2%

15 Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill /Irwin 6-15 Primary Market Placement Choices for Munis General Public Offering –underwriter is selected either by negotiation or by competitive bidding –the underwriter offers the bonds to the general public Rule 144A Placement –bonds are sold on a semi-private basis to qualified investors (generally FIs) General Public Offering –underwriter is selected either by negotiation or by competitive bidding –the underwriter offers the bonds to the general public Rule 144A Placement –bonds are sold on a semi-private basis to qualified investors (generally FIs)

16 Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill /Irwin 6-16 Top Municipal Bond Underwriters Principal Amount Market No. of Underwriter (in millions $$) Share Issues UBS Financial Services $35, % 631 Citigroup 30, % 476 Lehman Brothers 22, % 170 Merrill Lynch 18, % 208 Goldman Sachs 18, % 132 J.P. Morgan Securities 17, % 324 Bear, Stearns 15, % 133 Morgan Stanley 14, % 179 RBC Dain Rauscher 11, % 533 Banc of America Securities 10, % 327 Industry totals $265.5 billion Principal Amount Market No. of Underwriter (in millions $$) Share Issues UBS Financial Services $35, % 631 Citigroup 30, % 476 Lehman Brothers 22, % 170 Merrill Lynch 18, % 208 Goldman Sachs 18, % 132 J.P. Morgan Securities 17, % 324 Bear, Stearns 15, % 133 Morgan Stanley 14, % 179 RBC Dain Rauscher 11, % 533 Banc of America Securities 10, % 327 Industry totals $265.5 billion

17 Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill /Irwin 6-17 Contracting Choices with the Underwriter Firm commitment underwriting –the issue of securities in which the investment bank guarantees the corp. a price for newly issued securities by buying the whole issue at a fixed price from the corporate issuer then seeks to resell to suppliers of funds (investors) at a higher price Best efforts underwriting –the issue of securities in which the underwriter does not guarantee a price to the issuer and acts more as a placing or distribution agent, bank acts as agent on a fee basis related to its success in placing the issue Firm commitment underwriting –the issue of securities in which the investment bank guarantees the corp. a price for newly issued securities by buying the whole issue at a fixed price from the corporate issuer then seeks to resell to suppliers of funds (investors) at a higher price Best efforts underwriting –the issue of securities in which the underwriter does not guarantee a price to the issuer and acts more as a placing or distribution agent, bank acts as agent on a fee basis related to its success in placing the issue

18 Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill /Irwin 6-18 Secondary Market for Munis Secondary market is thin (i.e. trades are relatively infrequent) due to a lack of information on bond issuers, who are generally much smaller than corporate bond issuers

19 Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill /Irwin Corporate Bonds All long-term bonds issued by corporations Minimum denominations publicly traded corporate bonds is $1,000 Generally pay interest semiannually Bond indenture –legal contract that specifies the rights and obligations of the bond issuer and the bond holder All long-term bonds issued by corporations Minimum denominations publicly traded corporate bonds is $1,000 Generally pay interest semiannually Bond indenture –legal contract that specifies the rights and obligations of the bond issuer and the bond holder

20 Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill /Irwin 6-20 Types of Corporate Bonds Bearer bonds –coupons attached that are presented by the holder to the issuer for interest payments when due Registered bonds –the owner of the bond is recorded by the issuer and coupon payments are mailed to the registered owner Term bonds –entire issue matures on a single date Serial bonds –mature on a series of dates (continued) Bearer bonds –coupons attached that are presented by the holder to the issuer for interest payments when due Registered bonds –the owner of the bond is recorded by the issuer and coupon payments are mailed to the registered owner Term bonds –entire issue matures on a single date Serial bonds –mature on a series of dates (continued)

21 Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill /Irwin 6-21 Types of Corporate Bonds Mortgage bonds –issued to finance specific projects which are pledged as collateral Equipment Trust Certificates –bonds collateralized with tangible non-real estate property Debentures –backed solely by the general credit of the issuing firm and unsecured by specific assets or collateral Subordinated debentures –unsecured debentures that are junior in their rights to mortgage bonds and regular debentures (continued) Mortgage bonds –issued to finance specific projects which are pledged as collateral Equipment Trust Certificates –bonds collateralized with tangible non-real estate property Debentures –backed solely by the general credit of the issuing firm and unsecured by specific assets or collateral Subordinated debentures –unsecured debentures that are junior in their rights to mortgage bonds and regular debentures (continued)

22 Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill /Irwin 6-22 Types of Corporate Bonds Convertible bonds –may be exchanged for another security of the issuing firm at the discretion of the bond holder Stock Warrant –give the bond holder an opportunity to purchase common stock at a specified price up to a specified date Callable bonds –allow the issuer to force the bond holder to sell the bond back to the issuer at a price above the par value (call price) Sinking Fund bonds –bonds that include a requirement that the issuer retire a certain amount of the bond issue each year Convertible bonds –may be exchanged for another security of the issuing firm at the discretion of the bond holder Stock Warrant –give the bond holder an opportunity to purchase common stock at a specified price up to a specified date Callable bonds –allow the issuer to force the bond holder to sell the bond back to the issuer at a price above the par value (call price) Sinking Fund bonds –bonds that include a requirement that the issuer retire a certain amount of the bond issue each year

23 Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill /Irwin 6-23 Primary and Secondary Markets for Corp Bonds Primary sales of corp bonds occur through either a public sale (issue) or a private placement similar to municipal bonds Two secondary markets –the exchange market (e.g., the NYSE) –the over-the-counter (OTC) market OTC electronic market dominates trading in corp bonds Primary sales of corp bonds occur through either a public sale (issue) or a private placement similar to municipal bonds Two secondary markets –the exchange market (e.g., the NYSE) –the over-the-counter (OTC) market OTC electronic market dominates trading in corp bonds

24 Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill /Irwin Bond Ratings Bonds are rated by the issuer’s default risk Large bond investors, traders and managers evaluate default risk by analyzing the issuer’s financial ratios and security prices Two major bond rating agencies are Moody’s and Standard & Poor’s (S&P) Bonds assigned a letter grade based on perceived probability of issuer default Bonds are rated by the issuer’s default risk Large bond investors, traders and managers evaluate default risk by analyzing the issuer’s financial ratios and security prices Two major bond rating agencies are Moody’s and Standard & Poor’s (S&P) Bonds assigned a letter grade based on perceived probability of issuer default

25 Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill /Irwin 6-25 Bond Credit Ratings Explanation Moody’s S&P Investment grade categories: Best quality; smallest degree of risk Aaa AAA High quality; slightly more long-term Aa1 AA+ risk than top rating Aa2 AA Aa3 AA Upper medium grade; possible A1 AA- impairment in the future A2 A+ A3 A- Medium grade; lack outstanding Baa1 BBB+ investment characteristics Baa2 BBB Baa3 BBB- Explanation Moody’s S&P Investment grade categories: Best quality; smallest degree of risk Aaa AAA High quality; slightly more long-term Aa1 AA+ risk than top rating Aa2 AA Aa3 AA Upper medium grade; possible A1 AA- impairment in the future A2 A+ A3 A- Medium grade; lack outstanding Baa1 BBB+ investment characteristics Baa2 BBB Baa3 BBB- (continued)

26 Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill /Irwin 6-26 Bond Credit Ratings Explanation Moody’s S&P Speculative investment grades: Speculative issues; protection may Ba1 BB+ be very moderate Ba2 BB Ba3 BB- Very speculative; may have small B1 B+ assurance of interest and principle B2 B payment B3 B- Issues in poor standing; may be in default Caa CCC Speculative in a high degree Ca CC Lowest quality; poor prospects of attaining C C real investment standing D Explanation Moody’s S&P Speculative investment grades: Speculative issues; protection may Ba1 BB+ be very moderate Ba2 BB Ba3 BB- Very speculative; may have small B1 B+ assurance of interest and principle B2 B payment B3 B- Issues in poor standing; may be in default Caa CCC Speculative in a high degree Ca CC Lowest quality; poor prospects of attaining C C real investment standing D

27 Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill /Irwin International Aspects of Bond Markets International bond market –trades bonds that are underwritten by an international syndicate –offer bonds simultaneously to investors in several countries –issue bonds outside the jurisdiction of any single country –offer bonds in unregistered form International bond market –trades bonds that are underwritten by an international syndicate –offer bonds simultaneously to investors in several countries –issue bonds outside the jurisdiction of any single country –offer bonds in unregistered form

28 Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill /Irwin 6-28 Eurobonds, Foreign Bonds, Brady Bonds and Sovereign Bonds Eurobonds –long-term bonds issued and sold outside the country of the currency in which they are denominated (e.g., dollar- denominated bonds issued in Europe or Asia ) Foreign Bonds –long-term bonds issued by firms and governments outside of the issuer’s country, usually denominated in the currency of the country in which they are issued Brady Bonds and Sovereign Bonds –a bond that is swapped for an outstanding loan to a lesser developed country, sovereign bonds carry the creditworthiness of the lesser developed country Eurobonds –long-term bonds issued and sold outside the country of the currency in which they are denominated (e.g., dollar- denominated bonds issued in Europe or Asia ) Foreign Bonds –long-term bonds issued by firms and governments outside of the issuer’s country, usually denominated in the currency of the country in which they are issued Brady Bonds and Sovereign Bonds –a bond that is swapped for an outstanding loan to a lesser developed country, sovereign bonds carry the creditworthiness of the lesser developed country


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