2Financial management is concerned with managing a corporation’s money Where to invest moneyWhether or not to replace an assetWhen to issue new stocks or bondsHow to raise money
3Functions of Financial Management Allocate funds to current and fixed assetsObtain best mix of financingDevelop an appropriate dividend policyAcquire new fundsCredit managementInventory controlReceipt and disbursements of funds
4Possible Goals of Financial Management Earn the highest profitIncrease the value of the firmMaximize shareholder wealthMaximize management wealthAct in a socially responsible or ethical manner5, 7
5Forms of Business Organization Sole proprietorshipPartnershipCorporationSubchapter S
6Sole Proprietorship Single person ownership Unlimited liability for ownerProfits/losses taxed as though they belong to owner
7Partnership Two or more owners Unlimited liability for owners Articles of partnership specify ownership interest, methods of distributing profits/losses, and means of withdrawalLosses/profits allocated directly to partners
8Corporation Legal entity Formed through articles of incorporation Owned by shareholders whose liability is limited to investmentContinual lifeEasy division/transfer of ownershipManaged by a Board of Directors
9Pays taxes on its income Remaining income is paid to shareholders as dividendsShareholders pay taxes on dividends leading to double taxationMay form a Subchapter S Corporation to prevent double taxationDisc. Questions 1, 3, 4
10How will we see the difference? Balance sheet – ownershipRaising fundsDividends paidCash flow – owner’s draw
11Agency Theory Agents act on behalf of others Ex: Real estate agents, sports agentsRelationship between the owners and managers of a firmTwo different groups in a public corporationMay cause conflicts of interests in running the companyMgrs are supposed to make the best decisions in the interest of the shareholders
12Sarbanes-Oxley Act 2002 response to corporate scandals Federal law drafted that increased regulation of corporations’ accounting practices and governanceFocus is to make sure that corporations present financial information accuratelyCreates an Oversight Board that increases standards for auditing
13Current Issues in Finance Risk vs. returnShort–term vs. long-termRaising money through stocks or bonds
17Financial MarketsMeeting place for people, corporations, and institutions what need money or have money to lend or investPublic financial markets – government that is borrowing for highways, education, welfare or other public activitiesCorporate financial markets – corporations raising money
18What is bought or sold is called a “security” An investment instrument issued by a corporation, government, or other organization which offers evidence of debt or equitySecurities include stocks, bonds, notes, options, calls, and leases
19Money markets – deals with short-term securities that have a life of one year or less (ex: CD sold by a bank)Capital market – deals with long-term securities that have a life over one year
20Who are the primary participants in the capital markets? U.S. Treasury, other agencies of the federal, state and local gov’t, and corporations
21The international capital markets are rapidly increasing in importance. Influenced by:Iron curtain "collapse."Reunification of East and West Germany.A more competitive and tariff-free Europe.The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).Economic growth of Asian countries led by China.
22Competition for Funds in the U.S. Capital Markets U.S. Treasury sells short/long term securities for financingTreasury bills (or T-bills) -short-term securities that mature in one year or less from their issue date.Interest paid as difference between purchase price and payment at maturityFor example, if you bought a $10, week Treasury bill for $9,750 and held it until maturity, your interest would be $250You buy T-bills for a price less than their par (face) value, and when they mature we pay you their par value. Your interest is the difference between the purchase price of the security and what we pay you at maturity (or what you get if you sell the bill before it matures).
23Treasury notes and bonds - securities that pay fixed rate of interest every six months until maturityDifference between them is length until maturity. Treasury notes mature in 1-10 years from their issue date. Bonds mature in more than 10 years from their issue date.
25Corporations sell securities for funds also Common stock – company sells ownership interest with voting rights to control company for capitalPreferred stocks - usually have a fixed dividend and carry no voting rights. They have priority over common stocks in the case of bankruptcy and with regard to dividends. They technically have an unlimited life but often are redeemable.Most companies shy away from issuing preferred stock because it is an expensive form of capitalization. Preferreds pay dividends, which are paid from after-tax profits, while bonds pay interest, which is paid from pre-tax dollars. Therefore, preferreds are more costly to corporations because they get no tax break, but owning preferred stocks of other companies is another issue. Corporations are exempt from taxes on up to 80% of preferred dividend income. The IRS calls it a "dividend received" deduction and, unfortunately, individuals are not eligible for this tax relief. That's why preferreds are mostly held by corporations, but that should not prevent individuals from owning preferreds.
26Common stock is sold in two ways by corporation Initial Public offering (IPO)Secondary offering
27Securities are later traded by owners in security markets Primary markets in the U.S. the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) and the NASDAQ - American Stock Exchange (AMEX).Exchanges of lesser importance include the Chicago, Pacific, Detroit, Boston, Cincinnati, and PBW (Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Washington) exchanges.NASDAQ is electronic
29RegulationOrganized securities markets are regulated by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and through self-regulation.
30Laws governing securities trading Securities Act of 1933: Requires full disclosure of all pertinent investment information on new corporate security issues.Securities Exchange Act of created the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and empowered it to regulate securities markets.Securities Acts Amendments of Directed SEC to supervise development of national securities market
31Which is most popular?Corporations tend to raise funds through debt more often than equity