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Copyright © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. CHAPTER 12 The Bond Market
© 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Chapter Preview In this chapter, we focus on longer-term securities: bonds. Bonds are like money market instruments, but they have maturities that exceed one year. These include Treasury bonds, corporate bonds, mortgages, and the like.
© 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Chapter Preview We examine how capital markets operate, and then focus our attention on the bonds and the bond market. We will conclude this topic with Chapter 14 on mortgages. Topics include: Purpose of the Capital Market Capital Market Participants Capital Market Trading Types of Bonds Treasury Notes and Bonds
© 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Chapter Preview (cont.) Municipal Bonds Corporate Bonds Financial Guarantees for Bonds Current Yield Calculation Finding the Value of Coupon Bonds Investing in Bonds
© 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Purpose of the Capital Market Original maturity is greater than one year, typically for long-term financing or investments Best known capital market securities: ─Stocks and bonds
© 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Capital Market Participants Primary issuers of securities: ─Federal and local governments: debt issuers ─Corporations: equity and debt issuers Largest purchasers of securities: ─You and me
© 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Capital Market Trading 1.Primary market for initial sale (IPO) 2.Secondary market ─Over-the-counter ─Organized exchanges (i.e., NYSE)
© 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Types of Bonds Bonds are securities that represent debt owed by the issuer to the investor, and typically have specified payments on specific dates. Types of bonds we will examine include long-term government bonds (T-bonds), municipal bonds, and corporate bonds.
© 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Types of Bonds: Sample Corporate Bond
© 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Treasury Notes and Bonds The U.S. Treasury issues notes and bonds to finance its operations. The following table summarizes the maturity differences among the various Treasury securities.
© 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Treasury Notes and Bonds
© 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Treasury Bond Interest Rates No default risk since the Treasury can print money to payoff the debt Very low interest rates, often considered the risk-free rate (although inflation risk is still present)
© 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Treasury Bond Interest Rates The next two figures show historical rates on Treasury bills, bonds, and the inflation rate.
© 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Treasury Bond Interest Rates
© 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Treasury Bond Interest Rates: Bills vs. Bonds
© 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Treasury Bonds: Recent Innovation Treasury Inflation-Indexed Securities: the principal amount is tied to the current rate of inflation to protect investor purchasing power Treasury STRIPS: the coupon and principal payments are “stripped” from a T-Bond and sold as individual zero-coupon bonds.
© 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Treasury Bonds: Agency Debt Although not technically Treasury securities, agency bonds are issued by government- sponsored entities, such as GNMA, FNMA, and FHLMC. The debt has an “implicit” guarantee that the U.S. government will not let the debt default. This “guarantee” was clear during the 2008 bailout…
© 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved The 2007–2009 Financial Crisis: Bailout of Fannie and Freddie Both Fannie and Freddie managed their political situation effectively, allowing them to engage in risky activities, despite concerns raised. By 2008, the two had purchased or guaranteed over $5 trillion in mortgages or mortgage-backed securities.
© 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved The 2007–2009 Financial Crisis: Bailout of Fannie and Freddie Part of this growth was driven by their Congressional mission to support affordable housing. They did this by purchasing subprime and Alt-A mortgages. As these mortgages defaults, large losses mounted for both agencies. The final outcome remains unknown.
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