Presentation on theme: "PART 4: MANAGING YOUR MONEY Chapter 14 Investing in Bonds and Other Alternatives."— Presentation transcript:
PART 4: MANAGING YOUR MONEY Chapter 14 Investing in Bonds and Other Alternatives
14-2 Learning Objectives Invest in the bond market. Understand basic bond terminology and compare the various types of bonds. Calculate the value of a bond and understand the factors that cause bond values to change. Understand the risks associated with investing in real estate. Know why you shouldn’t invest in gold, silver, gems, or collectibles.
14-3 Why Consider Bonds? Bonds reduce risk through diversification. Bonds produce steady income. Bonds can be a safe investment if held to maturity.
14-4 Basic Bond Terminology and Features Par value – the face value or amount returned at maturity. – Usually $1000 for corporate bonds. – Bonds selling at 99½% are selling for $995. Coupon Interest Rate – the percentage of par value that will be paid out annually in the form of interest. – 8½% coupon pays $85 annually.
14-5 Basic Bond Terminology and Features Indenture – a legal document that provides specific terms of the loan agreement. It includes: – A description of the bond. – The rights of bondholders. – The rights of the issuing firm. – The responsibilities of the bond trustees.
14-6 Basic Bond Terminology and Features Call Provision – entitles issuer to repurchase (“call”) back the bonds at stated prices. – If interest rates decline, the issuer will call the bonds and replace with lower-cost debt. Sinking Fund – issuer sets aside money on a regular basis to pay off bonds at maturity. – Firm calls or repurchases in the open market.
14-7 Corporate Bonds Corporate bonds - allow firms to borrow money, are a major source of funding. – Denominations in $1000. – Secured bond – backed by collateral. – Unsecured bond – a debenture. – Hierarchy of bonds – subordinated debentures are low on the list.
14-8 Treasury and Agency Bonds U.S. government is the largest issuer of debt. Government spends more than it takes in. To finance an unbalanced budget, it can: – Sell assets. – Raise taxes. – Borrow more money.
14-9 Treasury and Agency Bonds Viewed as risk-free - given the government’s ability to tax and print money. With no default risk and no call risk, they pay a lower interest rate. Most government interest payments are exempt from state and local taxes.
14-10 Treasury and Agency Bonds Treasury-issued debt has maturities from 3 months to 10 years. – Until 2001, 30-year bonds were issued. – 70% of the debt has maturities of 5 years or less. Government issues include bills, notes, and bonds.
14-11 Treasury and Agency Bonds Government Debt Treasury Bills Treasury Notes Treasury Bonds Maturity When Issued 3, 6, or 12 months 2, 3, 5, or 10 years Over 10 years
14-12 Treasury and Agency Bonds Federal National Mortgage Association (FNMA) and the Federal Home Loan Banks (FHLB) issue agency bonds. – Not directly issued through the Treasury. – Considered to be virtually risk-free. – Interest rate higher than Treasuries. – Minimum denomination is $25,000.
14-13 Treasury and Agency Bonds Government National Mortgage Association (GNMA) issues “pass-through certificates.” – Represents an interest in a pool of federally insured mortgages. – GNMA packages a group of mortgages, guarantees them, then sells certificates. – $25,000 minimum denomination. – Investor receives a monthly check of interest and principal, but amount varies.
14-14 Treasury and Agency Bonds Treasury Inflation Protected Securities (TIPS) is the newest Treasury bond. – Maturities of 5, 10, or 20 years. – Par value of $1,000. – Par value changes when CPI changes. – Investors guaranteed a real return – a return above inflation. – Must pay taxes on adjustment although no cash is received.
14-15 Treasury and Agency Bonds U.S. Series EE Bonds – savings bonds aimed at small investor. – Face values from $50 to $10,000. – Purchased at half of face value. – Bond doubles in value after a specified period. – Liquid – can be cashed in at any time.
14-16 Treasury and Agency Bonds Bonds are accrual-type bonds. – Interest added to the value of bond, paid when cashed in. – Sold at face value, grow with inflation-indexed earnings for up to 30 years. – Return includes a fixed return and a semiannual inflation rate. – Invest from $50 to $30,000 per year. – Defer federal taxes up to 30 years.
14-17 Municipal Bonds Munis are issued by states, counties, cities, and other public agencies. Over $1 trillion in outstanding value. Tax exempt from federal government and by state (as long as you live where the bonds were issued). Capital gains, from selling early, are taxed.
14-18 Municipal Bonds General Obligation Backed by the full faith and credit of issuer. Taxes used to pay back principal and interest. Example: School district builds new school, taxes used to pay back the lenders. Revenue Bonds Derive funds to pay interest and repay principal from a designated project. Example: Bond finances a new toll road, revenue from tolls pay back lenders.
14-19 Municipal Bonds Most munis have serial maturities – a portion of the debt matures each year. Munis are not risk-free. – Although rare, issuers can default. Rating agencies evaluate bonds. Small issues may be illiquid.
14-20 Special Situation Bonds Zero Coupon Bonds – no interest payments. – Sold at a discount, returns par value at maturity. – Acts like a savings bond, appeals to those wanting a lump sum payment in the future without concerns of reinvesting interest. – Although interest is not received annually, the investor is taxed on interest income. – Federal government issues STRIPS.
14-21 Special Situation Bonds Junk Bonds - low-rated bonds or high-yield bonds. – Have ratings of BB or below. – Major issuers of junk bonds are new firms that have not yet established a performance record. – With a greater risk of default, they have interest rates 3-5% above AAA long-term bonds. – Most are callable.
14-22 Evaluating Bonds Current Yield - refers to the ratio of interest payment to the bond’s market price. Yield to Maturity – true yield received if bond is held to maturity. – Considers the annual interest payments as well as the difference between the bond’s current market price and maturity value.
14-23 Evaluating Bonds Equivalent Taxable Yield on Municipal Bonds: – Appeal of munis is their tax-exempt status. – Make comparisons between munis and taxable bonds. – Calculation refers to tax bracket – including federal, state, and local taxes avoided by the muni. – The higher the tax bracket, the more attractive the muni.
14-24 Bond Ratings – A Measure of Riskiness Moody’s and Standard & Poor’s provide ratings on corporate and municipal bonds. Ratings involve a judgment about a bond’s future risk potential. – Default risk – ability to repay principal. – Inability to meet interest obligations. The lower the rating, the higher the rate of return demanded by investors. Safest bonds receive AAA, D is extremely risky.
14-25 Reading Corporate Bond Quotes in the Wall Street Journal Selling price is quoted as a percent of par. – Price listed at % x $1000 = $1010. Include accrued interest. Invoice price is the sum of the quoted price and accrued interest.
14-26 Reading Treasury Quotes in the Wall Street Journal Treasury and agency securities trade in thirty-seconds (1/32). Price listed as 102:31 = /32 – If par value is $10,000 then price is $10, Paper lists both bid and ask prices.
14-27 Bond Valuation Bond owners receive interest payments for a number of years, and then par value at maturity. Value of a bond is the present value of the interest payments plus the present value of the repayment of par value at maturity.
14-28 Bond Valuation The value of a bond should be approximately the same as its price. The interest payments come in the form of an annuity. The repayment of par comes in the form of a single cash flow.
14-29 Bond Valuation What causes the required rate of return to change? – If the issuer becomes riskier, the required rate of return should rise. – A change in general interest rates, increase in expected inflation, the required rate of return should increase. When interest rates rise, the value of outstanding bonds falls.
14-30 Why Bonds Fluctuate in Value Inverse relationship between interest rates and bond values. – When interest rates rise, investors demand a higher return. – Because of the fixed coupon rate, the price must drop. Longer-term bonds fluctuate in price more than shorter-term bonds.
14-31 Why Bonds Fluctuate in Value Longer-term bonds fluctuate in price more than shorter-term bonds. As a bond approaches maturity, the market value approaches par value. When interest rates go down, bond prices go up, but upward price movement on bonds with a call provision is limited by the call price.
14-32 Preferred Stock A hybrid security with features of common stock and bonds. Similar to common: – No fixed maturity date. – Not paying dividends won’t cause bankruptcy. Similar to bonds: – Dividends are fixed, paid before common. – No voting rights.
14-33 Features and Characteristics of Preferred Stock Multiple Issues – more than one issue. Cumulative Feature – all unpaid dividends must be paid prior to declaring common dividends. Adjustable Rate – dividends fluctuate with interest rates. Convertibility – holder can, at any time, exchange for predetermined number of common shares. Callability – if interest rates decline, preferred stock likely to be called.
14-34 Valuation of Preferred Stock With a preferred stock, you receive a steady stream of dividends that go on forever. The value of a share of preferred stock is the present value of the perpetual stream of constant dividends. When interest rates rise, value decreases.
14-35 Risks Associated with Preferred Stock If interest rates rise, the value of preferred stock drops. If interest rates drop, the value of preferred stock rises and it is called away. Investor does not participate in the capital gains that common stockholders receive. Investor doesn’t have the safety of bond interest payments, preferred dividends can be passed without the risk of bankruptcy.
14-36 Investing in Real Estate Investing in real estate requires time, energy and sophistication. Investment real estate can be: – Direct – own the property Vacation homes, commercial property, undeveloped land – Indirect – invest in a group, hire a manager Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT), real estate syndicates
14-37 Investing – Speculating in Gold, Silver, Gems, and Collectibles Don’t do it! This is not investing – it is speculation. Collectibles may only have entertainment value.