3 CAUTION…………………..The sole purpose of this class is to expedite your passing the FAA knowledge test. With that said, all extra material not directly tested on the FAA knowledge test is omitted, even though much more information and knowledge is necessary to fly safely. Consult the FAR/AIM (CFR) and other FAA Handbooks for further information along with a Flight Instruction course.Instrument Knowledge Test is good for 24 calendar months.FAA-G Dwww. sportys.com/faatest
4 CFR 61.65 (d) Instrument Practical Test Requirements (d) Aeronautical experience for the instrument-airplane rating. A person who applies for an instrument-airplane rating must have logged:(1) Fifty hours of cross country flight time as pilot in command, of which 10 hours must have been in an airplane; and(2) Forty hours of actual or simulated instrument time in the areas of operation listed in paragraph (c) of this section, of which 15 hours must have been received from an authorized instructor who holds an instrument-airplane rating, and the instrument time includes:(i) Three hours of instrument flight training from an authorized instructor in an airplane that is appropriate to the instrument-airplane rating within 2 calendar months before the date of the practical test; and(ii) Instrument flight training on cross country flight procedures, including one cross country flight in an airplane with an authorized instructor, that is performed under instrument flight rules, when a flight plan has been filed with an air traffic control facility, and that involves—(A) A flight of 250 nautical miles along airways or by directed routing from an air traffic control facility;(B) An instrument approach at each airport; and(C) Three different kinds of approaches with the use of navigation systems.
5 HYPOXIA AND HYPERVENTILATION Hypoxia results from a lack of oxygen in the bloodstream and causes a lack of clear thinking, fatigue, euphoria, and, shortly thereafter, unconsciousness.Symptoms of hypoxia are difficult to detect before the pilot’s reactions are affected.Hyperventilation occurs when an excessive amount of air is breathed into the lungs at an excessive rate, e.g., when one becomes excited as a result of stress, fear, or anxiety.Overcome hyperventilation symptoms by slowing the breathing rate, by placing a paper bag over your nose and mouth and breathing into it, or by talking aloud.
6 HypoxiaDeterioration in night vision occurs at pressure altitude as low a 5,000ftOther effects of altitude hypoxia occurs above 12,000ftHeadacheDrowsinessDizzinessEuphoria or BelligerenceJudgmentMemoryAlertnessCoordinationAbility to make calculations
7 HypoxiaPerformance seriously deteriorates in less than 15 minutes at 15,000ft MSLPeriphery Vision turns grayOnly central vision remains (tunnel vision)Fingernails and lips turn blue (cyanosis)18,000 – 20,000ft MSL, ability to think straight is lost in 20 – 30 minutesAt 20,000ft MSL, occurs in 5-12 minutes followed by unconsciousness
8 HypoxiaHypoxia can occur at lower altitudes if you have one of the followingCarbon monoxide from exhaust fumesAlcohol, antihistamines, tranquilizers, sedatives, analgesicsExtreme heat/coldFeverAnxietyHypoxia is prevented/corrected byUsing oxygen above 5,000ft at night and 10,000ft dayUse lower altitude
10 HyperventilationAbnormal increase in volume of air breathed in and out of the lungsOccurs during a stressful situationFlushed the needed carbon dioxide to maintain the proper blood aciditySymptomsDizzinessTingling in fingers/toesHot/Cold sensationsDrowsinessNauseaFeeling of suffocationIncapacitation results from disorientation and muscle spasms leading then into unconsciousnessReaction to the symptoms causes even greater hyperventilation
11 HyperventilationSymptoms subside within a few minutes after the rate and depth of breathing are slowedHasten the recovery by breathing in and out of a paper bag, talking, singing or counting aloudEarly symptoms of Hyperventilation and Hypoxia are similar and can occur at the same timeIf using oxygen during early symptoms, set the regulator to deliver 100% oxygen to make sure it’s not hypoxiaIf not hypoxia, slow rate and depth of breathing
13 SPATIAL DISORIENTATION Spatial disorientation (sometimes called vertigo) is a state of temporary confusion resulting from misleading information sent to the brain by various sensory organs.The best way to overcome the effects of spatial disorientation is to rely on the airplane instruments and ignore body (kinesthetic) signals.The nervous system often interprets centrifugal force as vertical movement, i.e., rising or falling.Coriolis illusion is caused by an abrupt head movement in a prolonged constant-rate turn.This can cause spatial disorientation.
14 Spatial Disorientation An abrupt change from a climb to straight-and-level flight can create the illusion of tumbling backwards.A rapid acceleration during takeoff can create the illusion of being in a nose-up attitude.False horizon is an illusion that is caused by a sloping cloud formation, an obscured horizon, or a dark scene spread with ground lights and stars.
15 Illusions Leading to Spatial Disorientation LeansAbrupt correction of a banked attitude which was entered too slowly to stimulate the motion sensing system of the ear, creates the illusion of banking in the opposite directionSolved by reference to the flight instruments so vision can overcome the inner ear nervesCoriollis IllusionCaused by an abrupt head movement during a long constant-rate turn that ceased to stimulate the inner earSo don’t make abrupt head movements in IFR and watch the flight instruments
18 Illusions Leading to Spatial Disorientation Graveyard SpinRecovery from a long spin can cease to stimulate the inner ear and create the illusion of spinning in the opposite direction.Pilot then returns the aircraft to its original spinCorrective action: Watch the flight instruments so vision can overcome the inner earGraveyard SpiralLoss of altitude during a coordinated constant rate turn ceases to stimulate the inner ear creates the illusion of being in a descent with the wings level.Pilot pulls back on the controls, tightening the spiral and increasing the loss of altitudeCorrective action: Watch the flight instruments so vision can overcome the inner ear and seat nerves
25 Instrument Ground Training Module 7 Randy Schoephoerster
26 Vision and Visual Illusion Pilots should adapt their eyes for night flying by avoiding bright white lights for 30 minutes prior to flightWhite light must be avoided since it will cause temporary night blindness and impair night visionScan for other aircraft in daylight using short regularly spaced eye movementsScan for 10 degs increments every 1-2 secondsOnly the small center area of the eye can send clear, sharp, focused messages to the brain. All other areas of the eye provide less detailAt Night, use off center vision and slowly scan back and forth to facilitate off-center viewing
30 Visual Illusions Haze Narrow Runway Upward Sloping Runway Creates the illusion of being a greater distance from the runway than actualResult: Pilot flies lower than normal approachNarrow RunwayCreates the illusion that the airplane is higher than actualResult : Pilot flies lower than normal approachUpward Sloping RunwayCreates illusion that airplane is higher than actualResult: Pilot flies lower than normal approachDownward causes the opposite