CAUTION………………….. The sole purpose of this class is to expedite your passing the FAA knowledge test. With that said, all extra material not directly tested on the FAA knowledge test is omitted, even though much more information and knowledge is necessary to fly safely. Consult the FAR/AIM (CFR) and other FAA Handbooks for further information along with a Flight Instruction course. Instrument Knowledge Test is good for 24 calendar months. – FAA-G D www. sportys.com/faatest
CFR (d) Instrument Practical Test Requirements (d) Aeronautical experience for the instrument-airplane rating. A person who applies for an instrument-airplane rating must have logged: – (1) Fifty hours of cross country flight time as pilot in command, of which 10 hours must have been in an airplane; and – (2) Forty hours of actual or simulated instrument time in the areas of operation listed in paragraph (c) of this section, of which 15 hours must have been received from an authorized instructor who holds an instrument- airplane rating, and the instrument time includes: (i) Three hours of instrument flight training from an authorized instructor in an airplane that is appropriate to the instrument-airplane rating within 2 calendar months before the date of the practical test; and (ii) Instrument flight training on cross country flight procedures, including one cross country flight in an airplane with an authorized instructor, that is performed under instrument flight rules, when a flight plan has been filed with an air traffic control facility, and that involves— – (A) A flight of 250 nautical miles along airways or by directed routing from an air traffic control facility; – (B) An instrument approach at each airport ; and – (C) Three different kinds of approaches with the use of navigation systems.
HYPOXIA AND HYPERVENTILATION Hypoxia results from a lack of oxygen in the bloodstream and causes a lack of clear thinking, fatigue, euphoria, and, shortly thereafter, unconsciousness. – Symptoms of hypoxia are difficult to detect before the pilot’s reactions are affected. Hyperventilation occurs when an excessive amount of air is breathed into the lungs at an excessive rate, e.g., when one becomes excited as a result of stress, fear, or anxiety. – Overcome hyperventilation symptoms by slowing the breathing rate, by placing a paper bag over your nose and mouth and breathing into it, or by talking aloud.
Hypoxia Deterioration in night vision occurs at pressure altitude as low a 5,000ft Other effects of altitude hypoxia occurs above 12,000ft – Headache – Drowsiness – Dizziness – Euphoria or Belligerence – Judgment – Memory – Alertness – Coordination – Ability to make calculations
Hypoxia Performance seriously deteriorates in less than 15 minutes at 15,000ft MSL – Periphery Vision turns gray – Only central vision remains (tunnel vision) – Fingernails and lips turn blue (cyanosis) 18,000 – 20,000ft MSL, ability to think straight is lost in 20 – 30 minutes At 20,000ft MSL, occurs in 5-12 minutes followed by unconsciousness
Hypoxia Hypoxia can occur at lower altitudes if you have one of the following – Carbon monoxide from exhaust fumes – Alcohol, antihistamines, tranquilizers, sedatives, analgesics – Extreme heat/cold – Fever – Anxiety Hypoxia is prevented/corrected by – Using oxygen above 5,000ft at night and 10,000ft day – Use lower altitude
Hyperventilation Abnormal increase in volume of air breathed in and out of the lungs – Occurs during a stressful situation – Flushed the needed carbon dioxide to maintain the proper blood acidity – Symptoms Dizziness Tingling in fingers/toes Hot/Cold sensations Drowsiness Nausea Feeling of suffocation Incapacitation results from disorientation and muscle spasms leading then into unconsciousness – Reaction to the symptoms causes even greater hyperventilation
Hyperventilation Symptoms subside within a few minutes after the rate and depth of breathing are slowed – Hasten the recovery by breathing in and out of a paper bag, talking, singing or counting aloud Early symptoms of Hyperventilation and Hypoxia are similar and can occur at the same time – If using oxygen during early symptoms, set the regulator to deliver 100% oxygen to make sure it’s not hypoxia – If not hypoxia, slow rate and depth of breathing
SPATIAL DISORIENTATION Spatial disorientation (sometimes called vertigo) is a state of temporary confusion resulting from misleading information sent to the brain by various sensory organs. The best way to overcome the effects of spatial disorientation is to rely on the airplane instruments and ignore body (kinesthetic) signals. The nervous system often interprets centrifugal force as vertical movement, i.e., rising or falling. Coriolis illusion is caused by an abrupt head movement in a prolonged constant-rate turn. This can cause spatial disorientation.
Spatial Disorientation An abrupt change from a climb to straight-and- level flight can create the illusion of tumbling backwards. A rapid acceleration during takeoff can create the illusion of being in a nose-up attitude. False horizon is an illusion that is caused by a sloping cloud formation, an obscured horizon, or a dark scene spread with ground lights and stars.
Illusions Leading to Spatial Disorientation Leans – Abrupt correction of a banked attitude which was entered too slowly to stimulate the motion sensing system of the ear, creates the illusion of banking in the opposite direction – Solved by reference to the flight instruments so vision can overcome the inner ear nerves Coriollis Illusion – Caused by an abrupt head movement during a long constant-rate turn that ceased to stimulate the inner ear – So don’t make abrupt head movements in IFR and watch the flight instruments
Illusions Leading to Spatial Disorientation Graveyard Spin – Recovery from a long spin can cease to stimulate the inner ear and create the illusion of spinning in the opposite direction. – Pilot then returns the aircraft to its original spin – Corrective action: Watch the flight instruments so vision can overcome the inner ear Graveyard Spiral – Loss of altitude during a coordinated constant rate turn ceases to stimulate the inner ear creates the illusion of being in a descent with the wings level. – Pilot pulls back on the controls, tightening the spiral and increasing the loss of altitude – Corrective action: Watch the flight instruments so vision can overcome the inner ear and seat nerves
Spatial Disorientation Questions
Didn’t get to these on Day 8
Instrument Ground Training Module 7 Randy Schoephoerster
Vision and Visual Illusion Pilots should adapt their eyes for night flying by avoiding bright white lights for 30 minutes prior to flight – White light must be avoided since it will cause temporary night blindness and impair night vision Scan for other aircraft in daylight using short regularly spaced eye movements – Scan for 10 degs increments every 1-2 seconds – Only the small center area of the eye can send clear, sharp, focused messages to the brain. All other areas of the eye provide less detail At Night, use off center vision and slowly scan back and forth to facilitate off-center viewing
Visual Illusions Haze – Creates the illusion of being a greater distance from the runway than actual – Result: Pilot flies lower than normal approach Narrow Runway – Creates the illusion that the airplane is higher than actual – Result : Pilot flies lower than normal approach Upward Sloping Runway – Creates illusion that airplane is higher than actual – Result: Pilot flies lower than normal approach – Downward causes the opposite
Visual Illusion Questions
Instrument Ground Training Module 7 Randy Schoephoerster