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THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Definition of Social Stratification  Separation of members of a society on the basis.

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Presentation on theme: "THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Definition of Social Stratification  Separation of members of a society on the basis."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Definition of Social Stratification  Separation of members of a society on the basis of certain characteristics. The division into categories, ranks or classes.  Examples: ancestry, race, age, physical appearance, gender, education, occupation 1

2 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 2 Characteristics of Caste and Class Systems Caste System:  Closed and lifelong  Immobility and inherited status  Based on specific occupations  Ascribed status Class System:  Open and mobile  Reward is determined by achieved status  Property, prestige, and power are important Section 1: Systems of Stratification

3 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 3 Major Theories of Social Stratification Functionalist Theorists 1. stratification is a necessary feature of the social structure. 2. the more important a role and the more skill needed to perform it, the higher the reward. Conflict Theorists 1. stratification is a result of conflict over scarce resources. 2. groups who gain power then use that power to maintain it. Section 1: Systems of Stratification

4 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 4 The American Class System  – attend prestigious universities; owners of large businesses, investors, heirs to family fortunes, top business executives, capitalist class; 1 percent of population  Upper Class– attend prestigious universities; owners of large businesses, investors, heirs to family fortunes, top business executives, capitalist class; 1 percent of population Upper Class  – high income business and professionals, college educated, can buy luxuries for family; 14 percent of population  Upper Middle Class – high income business and professionals, college educated, can buy luxuries for family; 14 percent of population  – white-collar jobs, lower-level managers, small business owners, live comfortably but work hard; 30 percent of population  Lower Middle Class – white-collar jobs, lower-level managers, small business owners, live comfortably but work hard; 30 percent of population Lower Middle Class Section 2: The American Class System

5 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 5 The American Class System  – high school education; factory workers, clerical workers, lower level salespeople, some jobs pay well but little prestige, few financial reserves; 30 percent of population  Working Class – high school education; factory workers, clerical workers, lower level salespeople, some jobs pay well but little prestige, few financial reserves; 30 percent of population  – low paying jobs, rarely make living, depend on government programs; 22 percent of population  Working Poor – low paying jobs, rarely make living, depend on government programs; 22 percent of population Working Poor  – undesirable, low-paying jobs, unemployed, on welfare, life is a day to day struggle; 3 percent of population  Underclass – undesirable, low-paying jobs, unemployed, on welfare, life is a day to day struggle; 3 percent of population Underclass Section 2: The American Class System

6 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 6 Motivations and Cultural Values Influence the American Class System  Such values influence Americans to try to do better financially than their parents and to help their children do the same  Most Americans remain in the same social class as their parents. Section 2: The American Class System

7 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 7 Jerry's Story 1.What struck you the most from this short video about Jerry’s work day? 2. How much does he pay for his room? 3. What is his hourly wage? Do you think that’s enough to live on? 4. Do you know what the current, national minimum wage is? If Jerry has a hard time getting by on $12 an hour, what kind of struggles do you think someone who makes the minimum wage faces? 5. What are some of Jerry’s fears?

8 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON  Horizontal Mobility-Movement within a social class. Moving from one job to another of equal social ranking.  Vertical Mobility-movement between social classes. Can be either upward or downward. Vertical Mobility Vertical Mobility  Intergenerational Mobility-status differences between generations in the same family. 8

9 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 9 Groups Affected By PovertyPoverty  Age – children are the largest group (37 percent); three times more African American and Hispanic children are poor than whites.  Sex – women are the largest segment (57 percent); female-headed households account for about half of all poor families.  Race and Ethnicity – African Americans and Hispanics are far more likely than white Americans to be poor. Section 3: Poverty

10 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 10 Government Responses To PovertyPoverty  Government attempts to reduce inequality through various social-welfare programs using two approaches:  Transfer Payments – redistribution of money among various segments of society; (major programs include Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF).  Subsidies - transfer goods and services rather than cash such as the Food Stamp Program, housing, school lunches, and Medicaid.  People Helping People People Helping People Helping People Section 3: Poverty

11 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 11 The History of Hip Hop Jimmy Fallon/Will Smith

12 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 12 Park Avenue- Money, Power, the American Dream american-dream/ Born Rich People Like Us: Social Class in America 6D871A2A8C3C8EF


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