Presentation on theme: "Definition of Social Stratification"— Presentation transcript:
1Definition of Social Stratification Separation of members of a society on the basis of certain characteristics. The division into categories, ranks or classes.Examples: ancestry, race, age, physical appearance, gender, education, occupation
2Characteristics of Caste and Class Systems Section 1: Systems of StratificationCharacteristics of Caste and Class SystemsCaste System:Closed and lifelongImmobility and inherited statusBased on specific occupationsAscribed statusClass System:Open and mobileReward is determined by achieved statusProperty, prestige, and power are important
3Major Theories of Social Stratification Section 1: Systems of StratificationMajor Theories of Social StratificationFunctionalist Theoristsstratification is a necessary feature of the social structure.the more important a role and the more skill needed to perform it, the higher the reward.Conflict Theoristsstratification is a result of conflict over scarce resources.groups who gain power then use that power to maintain it.
4The American Class System Section 2: The American Class SystemThe American Class SystemUpper Class– attend prestigious universities; owners of large businesses, investors, heirs to family fortunes, top business executives, capitalist class; 1 percent of populationUpper Middle Class – high income business and professionals, college educated, can buy luxuries for family; 14 percent of populationLower Middle Class – white-collar jobs, lower-level managers, small business owners, live comfortably but work hard; 30 percent of population
5The American Class System Section 2: The American Class SystemThe American Class SystemWorking Class – high school education; factory workers, clerical workers, lower level salespeople, some jobs pay well but little prestige, few financial reserves; 30 percent of populationWorking Poor – low paying jobs, rarely make living, depend on government programs; 22 percent of populationUnderclass – undesirable, low-paying jobs, unemployed, on welfare, life is a day to day struggle; 3 percent of population
6Motivations and Cultural Values Influence the American Class System Section 2: The American Class SystemMotivations and Cultural Values Influence the American Class SystemSuch values influence Americans to try to do better financially than their parents and to help their children do the sameMost Americans remain in the same social class as their parents.
7Jerry's StoryWhat struck you the most from this short video about Jerry’s work day? How much does he pay for his room? What is his hourly wage? Do you think that’s enough to live on? Do you know what the current, national minimum wage is? If Jerry has a hard time getting by on $12 an hour, what kind of struggles do you think someone who makes the minimum wage faces? What are some of Jerry’s fears?
8Horizontal Mobility-Movement within a social class Horizontal Mobility-Movement within a social class. Moving from one job to another of equal social ranking.Vertical Mobility-movement between social classes. Can be either upward or downward.Intergenerational Mobility-status differences between generations in the same family.
9Groups Affected By Poverty Section 3: PovertyGroups Affected By PovertyAge – children are the largest group (37 percent); three times more African American and Hispanic children are poor than whites.Sex – women are the largest segment (57 percent); female-headed households account for about half of all poor families.Race and Ethnicity – African Americans and Hispanics are far more likely than white Americans to be poor.
10Government Responses To Poverty Section 3: PovertyGovernment Responses To PovertyGovernment attempts to reduce inequality through various social-welfare programs using two approaches:Transfer Payments – redistribution of money among various segments of society; (major programs include Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF).Subsidies - transfer goods and services rather than cash such as the Food Stamp Program, housing, school lunches, and Medicaid.People Helping People