Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

S Larssen: PM-PP-Stockholm-Oct-2003.ppt slide 1 PM in Europe - State and past trends Emissions and concentration levels Steinar Larssen Norwegian Institute.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "S Larssen: PM-PP-Stockholm-Oct-2003.ppt slide 1 PM in Europe - State and past trends Emissions and concentration levels Steinar Larssen Norwegian Institute."— Presentation transcript:

1 S Larssen: PM-PP-Stockholm-Oct-2003.ppt slide 1 PM in Europe - State and past trends Emissions and concentration levels Steinar Larssen Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU) European Topic Centre for Air Quality and Climate Change (ETC-ACC)

2 S Larssen: PM-PP-Stockholm-Oct-2003.ppt slide 2 Conclusions on PM emissions PM emission and trends data have been improved, but are still uncertain Primary PM 10 and precursor gases emissions have been reduced by 18 % and 40% since 1990, respectively. Source contributions: - differs in EU15 and AC13 Resuspension of particles from road surfaces in an important source, but poorly quantified; source strength highly dependent on weather/climatic conditions

3 S Larssen: PM-PP-Stockholm-Oct-2003.ppt slide 3 PM 10 emissions, 2000 European emissions of primary PM 10 and PM 10 precursors, 2000 (in ktonnes) 29 countries

4 S Larssen: PM-PP-Stockholm-Oct-2003.ppt slide 4 PM 10 emissions, 2000 Source contributions, primary PM 10 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Energy Industries Industry (Energy + Processes) Other (Energy + Non Energy) Road Transport AgricultureWaste % contribution EU15 AC13

5 S Larssen: PM-PP-Stockholm-Oct-2003.ppt slide 5 PM emissions, 2000 Source contributions, PM precursor gases (weighted) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Energy Industries Industry (Energy + Processes) Other (Energy + Non Energy) Road Transport AgricultureWaste % contribution EEA18 AC13

6 S Larssen: PM-PP-Stockholm-Oct-2003.ppt slide 6 PM 10 emission trends 1990-2000 Primary PM 10 Precursor gases

7 S Larssen: PM-PP-Stockholm-Oct-2003.ppt slide 7 Conclusions on state of PM 10, 2001 Data from 928 stations (97 / 417 / 293 / 77) 750 cities and towns Methods: Beta 40% ; Gravi 20% ; TEOM 20% ; nondef 20% Limit value exceedances at 34% of the stations Limit value exceedances in cities with total 30 mill people Population exposure: Remember importance of indoor exposure Average annual concentrations Rural 20.6 µg/m 3 Urban 25.2 µg/m 3 Traffic 32.1 µg/m 3

8 S Larssen: PM-PP-Stockholm-Oct-2003.ppt slide 8 From 89 traffic/urban station pairs: –35% higher concentration at traffic stations –Up to 90% higher Regional differences –Rural background higher in some accession countries and in NL, BE and NW DE –Urban concentrations highest in Southern/Eastern Europe? The indicative LV for 2010 was exceeded at most stations in cities and at about 50% at the rural sites. Significant uncertainty in such summary assessments due to –Representativeness of stations –Different monitoring methods

9 S Larssen: PM-PP-Stockholm-Oct-2003.ppt slide 9 PM 10 concentrations, Europe 2001 Max. value µg/m 3 # stations > LV Annual average103 (Spain)93 of 718 36th highest day180 (Spain)242 of 718 8th highest day245 (Spain)584 of 718 Some statistics

10 S Larssen: PM-PP-Stockholm-Oct-2003.ppt slide 10 PM 10 2001 Map PM 10 Rural stations Annual average Note: different methods, no corrections (also following maps)

11 S Larssen: PM-PP-Stockholm-Oct-2003.ppt slide 11 PM 10 2001 Map PM 10 Rural stations ”Max 36”

12 S Larssen: PM-PP-Stockholm-Oct-2003.ppt slide 12 PM 10 2001 Map Urban background ”Max 36”

13 S Larssen: PM-PP-Stockholm-Oct-2003.ppt slide 13 PM 10 2001 Map PM 10 Hot spot ”Max 36”

14 S Larssen: PM-PP-Stockholm-Oct-2003.ppt slide 14 ”Population exposure” to PM 10 Population in cities according to concentration range, ”max 36”

15 S Larssen: PM-PP-Stockholm-Oct-2003.ppt slide 15 PM 10 2001 Distribution of concentrations at stations Rural stations y = 1,65x y = 2,4747x 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 010203040506070 annual average ug/m3 MAX8 MAX36 stage 1 stage 2 Linear (MAX36) Linear (MAX8)

16 S Larssen: PM-PP-Stockholm-Oct-2003.ppt slide 16 PM 10 2001 Distribution of concentrations at stations Urban stations y = 1,6026x y = 2,3613x 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 01020304050607080 annual average ug/m3 MAX8 MAX36 stage 1 stage 2 Linear (MAX36) Linear (MAX8)

17 S Larssen: PM-PP-Stockholm-Oct-2003.ppt slide 17 PM10 2001 Distribution of concentrations at stations Street stations y = 1,5476x y = 2,1903x 0 50 100 150 200 250 0102030405060708090 annual average ug/m3 MAX8 MAX36 stage 2 stage 1 Linear (MAX36) Linear (MAX8)

18 S Larssen: PM-PP-Stockholm-Oct-2003.ppt slide 18 PM 10 for station types PM 10, Annual average mean - max 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 ruralurbanstreet ug/m3 2001 max mean

19 S Larssen: PM-PP-Stockholm-Oct-2003.ppt slide 19 PM 10 at hot-spot stations, 2001 Data from ”station pairs” Ratio PM 10 street / PM 10 urban, Annual average Average ratio: 1.34  0.25 Also up to 50 more daily exceedances at street station

20 S Larssen: PM-PP-Stockholm-Oct-2003.ppt slide 20 Conclusions on PM 10 past tendencies Time series are too short (1997-2001) to conclude statistically on trend Only 6 countries have a significant amount of stations reporting data since 1997 (UK, NL, BE, CZ, CH, ES) The tendency is towards lower concentrations (15-20%) but the tendency is not monotonic The upward tendency since 1999 is to a large extent guided by the tendency in the Czech Republic.

21 S Larssen: PM-PP-Stockholm-Oct-2003.ppt slide 21 The tendency, and absolute amount of reduction, is on the average, about the same for rural, urban and hot-spot areas Much of the downward tendency can be explained by reductions in rural concentrations of secondary inorganic particles (SO 4, NO 3,....)

22 S Larssen: PM-PP-Stockholm-Oct-2003.ppt slide 22 PM 10 concentration tendencies 1997-2001 Annual average 183 stations 36th highest day 193 stations

23 S Larssen: PM-PP-Stockholm-Oct-2003.ppt slide 23 PM 10 trends 1997-2001 Location of stations with >4 years with data Mainly UK, NL, BE, CH, CZ, ES

24 S Larssen: PM-PP-Stockholm-Oct-2003.ppt slide 24 The use of correction factors for PM 10 Information extracted from the Compliance Reporting Questionnaire, for 2001 Total stations: 1098 No methods info on 353 stations

25 S Larssen: PM-PP-Stockholm-Oct-2003.ppt slide 25 PM 10 correction factors on AirBase data Belgium:No corrections till 2001 (included) 1.37/1.47 from 2002 onwards Germany:All PM 10 data are in principle corrected PM 10 data Netherlands:1.33 for all station years Czech Republic:No correction applied United Kingdom: No correction applied France: Spain: No correction applied

26 S Larssen: PM-PP-Stockholm-Oct-2003.ppt slide 26 PM Rural tendencies 1992-2001 PM (”SPM”) at EMEP stations, country averages CH: PM 10 from 1997 onwards DE: PM 10 from 1999 onwards Source: EMEP-CCC

27 S Larssen: PM-PP-Stockholm-Oct-2003.ppt slide 27 PM Rural tendencies 1997-2001 Country averages CH: PM 10 DE: PM 10 from 1999 onwards

28 S Larssen: PM-PP-Stockholm-Oct-2003.ppt slide 28 PM 10 Rural tendencies Secondary inorganic particles (SO 4 ) (EMEP data) Rough estimate of reduction of sulfate and nitrate particles 1997-2000: Source: EMEP-CCC ~ 5 µg/m 3

29 S Larssen: PM-PP-Stockholm-Oct-2003.ppt slide 29 PM 10 Urban tendencies 1997-2001 Urban background, 36th highest day, country averages 0,00 10,00 20,00 30,00 40,00 50,00 60,00 70,00 80,00 90,00 100,00 19971998199920002001 BE(3) CH(4) CZ(29) UK(29) NL(5) PL(4) SE(2)

30 S Larssen: PM-PP-Stockholm-Oct-2003.ppt slide 30 PM 10 Street tendencies 1997-2001 Traffic stations, 36th highest day, country averages 0,00 20,00 40,00 60,00 80,00 100,00 120,00 140,00 160,00 19971998199920002001 BE(4) CH(2) CZ(5) DE(1) ES(17) FI(2) UK(5) NL(4) PL(1) PT(1)

31 S Larssen: PM-PP-Stockholm-Oct-2003.ppt slide 31 Conclusions on other PM metrics Available data on PM 2.5, PM 1.0 and UFP are too scarce to draw firm conclusions The PM 2.5 / PM 10 ratio is about 0.65 (average 0.4-0.8) The indicative PM 2.5 LV of 20 µg/m 3 (aa) was –met at all rural and most urban sites –exceeded at 15 or 23 traffic sites

32 S Larssen: PM-PP-Stockholm-Oct-2003.ppt slide 32 PM 1.0 was reported from 15 stations in 4 countries The PM 1.0 / PM 2.5 ratio was about 0.75 Annual average PM 1.0 range: 6-21 µg/m 3 Max. 24 h concentration: 147 µg/m 3 UFP was reported from 15 stations in 5 countries High surplus burden of UFP at traffic sites

33 S Larssen: PM-PP-Stockholm-Oct-2003.ppt slide 33 PM 2.5 Concentrations, Europe 2001 13 countries with data 119 station years 38 urban background 23 traffic 58 rural Methods: Gravimetry: 8 countries TEOM: 6 countries

34 S Larssen: PM-PP-Stockholm-Oct-2003.ppt slide 34 PM 2.5 at urban and street stations 36 of 61 stations met a threshold of 20 µg/m3 in 2001

35 S Larssen: PM-PP-Stockholm-Oct-2003.ppt slide 35 PM 2.5 Ratio 90%-ile (day) to annual average

36 S Larssen: PM-PP-Stockholm-Oct-2003.ppt slide 36 Ratio PM 2.5 / PM 10 From PM WG questionnaire Putaud et al. 2002 Average0.650.73 Range0.42-0.820.57-0.85 Std. Dev.±0.09±0.15 N72 Somewhat higher at rural than at traffic stations, reflecting resuspension at traffic stations

37 S Larssen: PM-PP-Stockholm-Oct-2003.ppt slide 37 PM 1.0 concentrations, 2001 4 countries 15 station years no rural stations Range: 6-21 µg/m 3 annual average Max. daily: > 50 µg/m 3 at most stations Max. 24 h conc: 147 µg/m 3

38 S Larssen: PM-PP-Stockholm-Oct-2003.ppt slide 38 PM ratios PM 2.5 / PM 10 0.65  0.09 N = 72 PM 1.0 / PM 10 0.49  ± 0.16 N = 15 PM 1.0 / PM 2.5 0.73  0.11 N = 15

39 S Larssen: PM-PP-Stockholm-Oct-2003.ppt slide 39 Ultra-fine particles, UFP 2001 Number size distributions  Traffic Urban background Rural background

40 S Larssen: PM-PP-Stockholm-Oct-2003.ppt slide 40 UFP 2001 Total number of particles 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 70000 80000 90000 100000 0 1234 5 Station type Number of UFP R(B) SB U(B) T


Download ppt "S Larssen: PM-PP-Stockholm-Oct-2003.ppt slide 1 PM in Europe - State and past trends Emissions and concentration levels Steinar Larssen Norwegian Institute."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google