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Chapter 1.  Language employs a combination of words to communicate ideas in a meaningful way.  By changing the word order Change the meaning of the.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1.  Language employs a combination of words to communicate ideas in a meaningful way.  By changing the word order Change the meaning of the."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 1

2  Language employs a combination of words to communicate ideas in a meaningful way.  By changing the word order Change the meaning of the sentence Or make it meaningless

3  How did words acquire their meaning?  Can language exist in isolation?  Is language universal or individualistic?  Is language still evolving?

4 1. Artificial 2. Restricted 3. Abstract 4. Arbitrary 5. Creative 6. Redundant 7. Recursive

5  Is created by people  Every symbol is attached to a particular thought or thing called “Referent”  There is no connection between the symbol and the thing  Example:- Table  Evolution of the word Nice

6  Language has got limitations  Sometimes we cannot find words to express our feelings.  Example:- “My school”  To avoid restriction we should use describing words

7  It represents generalized ideas of things and thoughts  Example:- Dress  It’s abstract nature helps us to generalize things like pins, books, tables etc..

8  There is no direct relationship between a word and the idea or object it represents.  Example:- Chair  Language keeps evolving to include new concepts and words

9  It creates new words every day.  Example :- Netettiquette  Edutainment  Twenty20  Either words can be borrowed from other languages or new words can be created by combining two existing words

10  Every language has a capacity of repetition or redundancy  Example:- Many students are writing in their notebooks.

11  Can generate any number of sentences using the same basic grammatical templates.  There is no limit to the potential length of a sentence.  Example –

12  Human communication takes place at various levels ◦ Extra personal ◦ Intrapersonal ◦ Interpersonal ◦ Organizational ◦ Mass

13 Communication between human being and non-human entities. This form of communication requires a good understanding, perfect co-ordination between sender and receiver. It can also involve some sign languagem

14  Takes place within the individual.  Self-motivation, self-determination happens at this level.  Example – Feeling hot ->message from and to brain and organ.

15  Sharing of information among people  Can be Formal and Informal.

16  Takes place at different hierarchical levels. ◦ Internal-operational ◦ External-operational ◦ Personal

17  A mediator transmits information to a large audience ◦ Has large reach ◦ Impersonal ◦ Presence of a gatekeeper ◦ Examples:-  Books, television, large gatherings addressed by a leader, newspaper

18  Flow of communication in an organization can be formal or informal.  Formal Communication ◦ Refers to communication that flows through formal channels ◦ Follows official hierarchy ◦ Is required to do one’s job ◦ Internal-operation and external-operational communication are both types of formal communication

19  Downward  Upward  Horizontal/Lateral  Diagonal

20  Flows from manager, down the chain of command  Can be routine information, instruction, advise, request, new policies, to ask clarification etc from sub-ordinates  Can also be feedback from superiors  Forms – Can be in the form of memos, notices, face-to-face, telephonic conversations etc

21  Flow from subordinates to their superiors  Subordinates send reports, present their findings recommendations, suggestions, grievances etc to their managers  In an open culture, a lot of upward communication will take place.  In a authoritative culture, downward communication will dominate.

22  Horizontal communication takes place among peer groups or hierarchically equivalent employees.  This kind of communication helps in coordination, saves time an bridges communication gap between teams. ◦ Eg:- development team and testing team

23  Advantages ◦ 1. Enables sharing of information between various departments ◦ 2. Is very vital for growth of organization ◦ 3. Fills in any communication gaps that might occur  Disadvantages ◦ 1. Can create conflicts when vertical channels are bypassed by employees ◦ 2. Sometimes superiors find that they have not been consulted for decision making

24  Flows in all directions and cuts across functions and levels in an organization  Eg:- Sales manager communicating with VP of Software Development division  Is very quick and efficient  Is quite prevalent nowadays due to lot of communication happening by email.

25  Communication networks are patterns that emerge when communication combines through horizontal and vertical channels.  Two types of Communication Networks  1. Formal Network Models  2. Informal Network Models

26  Five Communication networks 1. Chain network 2. Y-network 3. Wheel network 4. Circle network 5. All-channel network

27  Chain network ◦ Represents vertical hierarchy in which communication can flow downward or upward.  Y-network ◦ Represents multi-level hierarchy and a combination of horizontal and vertical communications  Wheel network  represents several subordinates reporting to a superior.  Can be a combination of horizontal and diagonal flow of communication

28  Circle Network ◦ Allows members to interact with adjacent members but no further  All-channel Network ◦ Which is least structured, enables all employees to interact freely ◦ Everybody’s views are equally and openly shared.

29  No single network is suitable for all occasions  If speed is a priority – Wheel and All channel are preferred  If accuracy is crucial – Chain, Y and Wheel networks are preferred

30  Informal Network is also called grapevine  Very active in all organizations  Types are ◦ Single strand ◦ Gossip ◦ Probability ◦ Cluster

31  Plays a pivotal role in success of any organization  Success of any organization can be recognized by the quality and quantity of information flowing through it’s personnel.  Communication becomes more and more important when you go higher in the organizational hierarchy.  You have to develop your communication skills to be successful in your career.

32 Oral Written Face-to-face conversations Telephonic Meetings Seminars Conferences etc Memos Letters E-mails Faxes Notices Circulars etc

33  Communication is like a vehicle through which all organization personnel perform their functions  It is impossible for an organization to survive without this vehicle.  It is of utmost importance and can never be ignored.


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