2Language as a Tool of Communication Language employs a combination of words to communicate ideas in a meaningful way.By changing the word orderChange the meaning of the sentenceOr make it meaningless
3Some questions?? How did words acquire their meaning? Can language exist in isolation?Is language universal or individualistic?Is language still evolving?
4Characteristics of Language ArtificialRestrictedAbstractArbitraryCreativeRedundantRecursive
5Language is Artificial Is created by peopleEvery symbol is attached to a particular thought or thing called “Referent”There is no connection between the symbol and the thingExample:- TableEvolution of the word Nice
6Language is Restricted Language has got limitationsSometimes we cannot find words to express our feelings.Example:- “My school”To avoid restriction we should use describing words
7Language is AbstractIt represents generalized ideas of things and thoughtsExample:- DressIt’s abstract nature helps us to generalize things like pins, books , tables etc..
8Language is ArbitraryThere is no direct relationship between a word and the idea or object it represents.Example:- ChairLanguage keeps evolving to include new concepts and words
9Language is Creative It creates new words every day. Example :- NetettiquetteEdutainmentTwenty20Either words can be borrowed from other languages or new words can be created by combining two existing words
10Language is Repetitive Every language has a capacity of repetition or redundancyExample:- Many students are writing in their notebooks.
11Language is RecursiveCan generate any number of sentences using the same basic grammatical templates.There is no limit to the potential length of a sentence.Example –
12Levels of Communication Human communication takes place at various levelsExtra personalIntrapersonalInterpersonalOrganizationalMass
13Extra personal Communication Communication between human being and non-human entities.This form of communication requires a good understanding, perfect co-ordination between sender and receiver.It can also involve some sign languagem
14Intrapersonal Communication Takes place within the individual.Self-motivation, self-determination happens at this level.Example – Feeling hot ->message from and to brain and organ.
15Interpersonal Communication Sharing of information among peopleCan be Formal and Informal.
16Organizational Communication Takes place at different hierarchical levels.Internal-operationalExternal-operationalPersonal
17Mass CommunicationA mediator transmits information to a large audienceHas large reachImpersonalPresence of a gatekeeperExamples:-Books, television, large gatherings addressed by a leader, newspaper
18Flow of CommunicationFlow of communication in an organization can be formal or informal.Formal CommunicationRefers to communication that flows through formal channelsFollows official hierarchyIs required to do one’s jobInternal-operation and external-operational communication are both types of formal communication
19Various directions of Formal Communication DownwardUpwardHorizontal/LateralDiagonal
20Downward Communication Flows from manager , down the chain of commandCan be routine information, instruction, advise, request, new policies, to ask clarification etc from sub-ordinatesCan also be feedback from superiorsForms – Can be in the form of memos, notices, face-to-face, telephonic conversations etc
21Upward Communication Flow from subordinates to their superiors Subordinates send reports, present their findings recommendations, suggestions, grievances etc to their managersIn an open culture , a lot of upward communication will take place.In a authoritative culture, downward communication will dominate.
22Lateral or Horizontal Communication Horizontal communication takes place among peer groups or hierarchically equivalent employees.This kind of communication helps in coordination, saves time an bridges communication gap between teams.Eg:- development team and testing team
23Lateral/ Horizontal Communication Advantages1. Enables sharing of information between various departments2. Is very vital for growth of organization3. Fills in any communication gaps that might occurDisadvantages1. Can create conflicts when vertical channels are bypassed by employees2. Sometimes superiors find that they have not been consulted for decision making
24Diagonal or Crosswise communication Flows in all directions and cuts across functions and levels in an organizationEg:- Sales manager communicating with VP of Software Development divisionIs very quick and efficientIs quite prevalent nowadays due to lot of communication happening by .
25Communication Networks Communication networks are patterns that emerge when communication combines through horizontal and vertical channels.Two types of Communication Networks1. Formal Network Models2. Informal Network Models
26Formal Network Models Five Communication networks Chain network Y-networkWheel networkCircle networkAll-channel network
27Formal Network Models Chain network Y-network Wheel network Represents vertical hierarchy in which communication can flow downward or upward.Y-networkRepresents multi-level hierarchy and a combination of horizontal and vertical communicationsWheel networkrepresents several subordinates reporting to a superior.Can be a combination of horizontal and diagonal flow of communication
28Formal Network Models Circle Network All-channel Network Allows members to interact with adjacent members but no furtherAll-channel NetworkWhich is least structured, enables all employees to interact freelyEverybody’s views are equally and openly shared.
29Points to note No single network is suitable for all occasions If speed is a priority – Wheel and All channel are preferredIf accuracy is crucial – Chain, Y and Wheel networks are preferred
30Informal Networks Informal Network is also called grapevine Very active in all organizationsTypes areSingle strandGossipProbabilityCluster
31The Importance of Technical Communication Plays a pivotal role in success of any organizationSuccess of any organization can be recognized by the quality and quantity of information flowing through it’s personnel.Communication becomes more and more important when you go higher in the organizational hierarchy.You have to develop your communication skills to be successful in your career.
32Types of Technical Communication OralWrittenFace-to-face conversationsTelephonicMeetingsSeminarsConferences etcMemosLetterssFaxesNoticesCirculars etc
33In the end..Communication is like a vehicle through which all organization personnel perform their functionsIt is impossible for an organization to survive without this vehicle.It is of utmost importance and can never be ignored.