Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1. Language employs a combination of words to communicate ideas in a meaningful way. By changing the word order Change the meaning of the."— Presentation transcript:
Language employs a combination of words to communicate ideas in a meaningful way. By changing the word order Change the meaning of the sentence Or make it meaningless
How did words acquire their meaning? Can language exist in isolation? Is language universal or individualistic? Is language still evolving?
Is created by people Every symbol is attached to a particular thought or thing called “Referent” There is no connection between the symbol and the thing Example:- Table Evolution of the word Nice
Language has got limitations Sometimes we cannot find words to express our feelings. Example:- “My school” To avoid restriction we should use describing words
It represents generalized ideas of things and thoughts Example:- Dress It’s abstract nature helps us to generalize things like pins, books, tables etc..
There is no direct relationship between a word and the idea or object it represents. Example:- Chair Language keeps evolving to include new concepts and words
It creates new words every day. Example :- Netettiquette Edutainment Twenty20 Either words can be borrowed from other languages or new words can be created by combining two existing words
Every language has a capacity of repetition or redundancy Example:- Many students are writing in their notebooks.
Can generate any number of sentences using the same basic grammatical templates. There is no limit to the potential length of a sentence. Example –
Human communication takes place at various levels ◦ Extra personal ◦ Intrapersonal ◦ Interpersonal ◦ Organizational ◦ Mass
Communication between human being and non-human entities. This form of communication requires a good understanding, perfect co-ordination between sender and receiver. It can also involve some sign languagem
Takes place within the individual. Self-motivation, self-determination happens at this level. Example – Feeling hot ->message from and to brain and organ.
Sharing of information among people Can be Formal and Informal.
Takes place at different hierarchical levels. ◦ Internal-operational ◦ External-operational ◦ Personal
A mediator transmits information to a large audience ◦ Has large reach ◦ Impersonal ◦ Presence of a gatekeeper ◦ Examples:- Books, television, large gatherings addressed by a leader, newspaper
Flow of communication in an organization can be formal or informal. Formal Communication ◦ Refers to communication that flows through formal channels ◦ Follows official hierarchy ◦ Is required to do one’s job ◦ Internal-operation and external-operational communication are both types of formal communication
Flows from manager, down the chain of command Can be routine information, instruction, advise, request, new policies, to ask clarification etc from sub-ordinates Can also be feedback from superiors Forms – Can be in the form of memos, notices, face-to-face, telephonic conversations etc
Flow from subordinates to their superiors Subordinates send reports, present their findings recommendations, suggestions, grievances etc to their managers In an open culture, a lot of upward communication will take place. In a authoritative culture, downward communication will dominate.
Horizontal communication takes place among peer groups or hierarchically equivalent employees. This kind of communication helps in coordination, saves time an bridges communication gap between teams. ◦ Eg:- development team and testing team
Advantages ◦ 1. Enables sharing of information between various departments ◦ 2. Is very vital for growth of organization ◦ 3. Fills in any communication gaps that might occur Disadvantages ◦ 1. Can create conflicts when vertical channels are bypassed by employees ◦ 2. Sometimes superiors find that they have not been consulted for decision making
Flows in all directions and cuts across functions and levels in an organization Eg:- Sales manager communicating with VP of Software Development division Is very quick and efficient Is quite prevalent nowadays due to lot of communication happening by email.
Communication networks are patterns that emerge when communication combines through horizontal and vertical channels. Two types of Communication Networks 1. Formal Network Models 2. Informal Network Models
Five Communication networks 1. Chain network 2. Y-network 3. Wheel network 4. Circle network 5. All-channel network
Chain network ◦ Represents vertical hierarchy in which communication can flow downward or upward. Y-network ◦ Represents multi-level hierarchy and a combination of horizontal and vertical communications Wheel network represents several subordinates reporting to a superior. Can be a combination of horizontal and diagonal flow of communication
Circle Network ◦ Allows members to interact with adjacent members but no further All-channel Network ◦ Which is least structured, enables all employees to interact freely ◦ Everybody’s views are equally and openly shared.
No single network is suitable for all occasions If speed is a priority – Wheel and All channel are preferred If accuracy is crucial – Chain, Y and Wheel networks are preferred
Informal Network is also called grapevine Very active in all organizations Types are ◦ Single strand ◦ Gossip ◦ Probability ◦ Cluster
Plays a pivotal role in success of any organization Success of any organization can be recognized by the quality and quantity of information flowing through it’s personnel. Communication becomes more and more important when you go higher in the organizational hierarchy. You have to develop your communication skills to be successful in your career.
Communication is like a vehicle through which all organization personnel perform their functions It is impossible for an organization to survive without this vehicle. It is of utmost importance and can never be ignored.