Presentation on theme: "Quiz 1 (Use the terms & concepts list in the MESA Day Handbook along with the “Rainwater Harvesting for Drylands” resource book) On-Site Challenge: Water."— Presentation transcript:
Quiz 1 (Use the terms & concepts list in the MESA Day Handbook along with the “Rainwater Harvesting for Drylands” resource book) On-Site Challenge: Water Harvesting Terms and Concepts
The landscaped feature below reduces the steepness of a section of a slope, reducing runoff and erosion while increasing water infiltration. What is it called?
ANSWER: Terrace Terraces can be small-scale like in the previous slide or large-scale (below). Look for the use of terraces in hilly areas where you live.
The photo shows _______________ of a stream; which typically straightens & constricts water flow by sealing & smoothing the banks and sometimes beds of a waterway.
ANSWER: Channelization Aerial photo showing channelization of the Rio Grande in the Mesilla Valley (southern New Mexico).
Channelization increases the _________ of water flow through & downstream of the channelized area, reducing infiltration of water into the soil and sometimes deepening the channel. A) Volume B) Velocity C) Width
Answer: Velocity Left Photo: note the steep drop below the culvert where the pressure & velocity of water has scoured the ground away Right Photo: Rocks placed below culvert to slow velocity & prevent erosion
When water flow is not channelized and is allowed to spread out and slow down what are the benefit/s? A)Reduced erosion B) Water is allowed to infiltrate into the ground (recharges groundwater) C) Neither A nor B D) Both A & B
ANSWER: BOTH A & B Reduces erosion and allows water to infiltrate into the ground. PHOTO: An un- channelized river with natural meanders (curves)
A drainage pipe made to transport water beneath a roadway is called a _________________?
ANSWER: Culvert Photo: box culverts for the New Mexico Department of Transportation near Hillsboro New Mexico
Which of these household water uses does NOT produce grey-water?
Answer: Greywater is water that drains from your household sinks, tubs, showers and washing machine. It does not include water draining from the toilet which is called blackwater.
Percolation is the ________movement of water through the soil. A) upward B) downward C) rapid D) none of the above
ANSWER: B) downward
Which driveway is impervious? B A
Answer: A Water is not able to percolate through the impervious cement surface of this driveway
What is the advantage of permeable paving? A) Allows water to infiltrate the soil B) Passively irrigates adjoining plants C) Dissipates heat D) Reduces soil compaction E) Allows tree roots to breathe F) Filters pollutants G) Decreases the need for expensive drainage infrastructure H) all of the above
Answer: All of the above Photo: The permeable landscaping in a desert backyard allows rainwater to infiltrate the ground & create a cooler, greener living environment
A porous layer of organic matter or rock on the surface of the soil that increases porosity and fertility of the underlying soil AND reduces moisture loss to evaporation is called _________.
ANSWER: Mulch Mulches often reflect what is available in that region. What might be readily available mulch where you live? Pecan Mulch Oyster Shell Mulch Wood bark Gravel much
The subterranean layers of sedimentary particles (sand, gravel, rocks) laid down over geologic time, in which water fills the tiny spaces between the particles is called an ____________
ANSWER: Aquifer PREVIOUS SLIDE: USGS aquifer map of New Mexico