Formal Communication Refers to interchange of information officially Also known as “through proper channel communication” Formal relations may establish between managers and employees May take any of the forms; policy; manuals: procedures and rule books; memoranda; official meeting; reports etc.
Informal Communication A casual form of information sharing Based on informal relations and free from all the organizational formalities Builds relations among staff members and volunteers May occur for advice lines where people call in for help for personal issues
Types of Formal Communication within a Business Vertical (Upward and Downward) Diagonal Horizontal
Vertical Communication Vertical communication occurs between hierarchically positioned persons and can involve both downward and upward communication flows.
Upward Communication The upward communication can also be called the bottom-up communication. It is the flow of information from subordinates to managers all of who work within the same organization.
Downward Communication A downward communication is defined as the type of communication in which flow of information in an organization comes from the top management down to those at the lower levels in the organization or establishment.
Diagonal Communication A diagonal communication in an organization is the process whereby the flow of information is between people who work in different departments and are at different levels of the organization.
Horizontal Communication Horizontal communication is the transmission of information between people, divisions, departments or units within the same level of organizational hierarchy. Effective use of horizontal communication in the workplace can enhance both productivity and morale, as well as offering a channel for resolving conflict.
Grapevine communication can be defined as an informal communication within the organization or establishment. Grapevine communication is synonymous with rumors. It is the process whereby a rumor or leaked information circulates among workers within the organization. Information received through the grapevine can either be true or false since it is mainly based on rumors. (Rumors)
Bypassing Channel of Communication The bypassing channel of communication normally happens as a result of either urgency or privacy of a particular piece of information being delivered. It happens when lower employees bypass middle managers and communicate directly with a higher level manager or vice versa.