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Mubarak. Communication  “the lubricant of organizations…”  The art of being able to structure and transmit a message in a way that another can easily.

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Presentation on theme: "Mubarak. Communication  “the lubricant of organizations…”  The art of being able to structure and transmit a message in a way that another can easily."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mubarak

2 Communication  “the lubricant of organizations…”  The art of being able to structure and transmit a message in a way that another can easily understand and/or accept  Using symbols (words) to attempt to create shared meaning (mutual understanding) that will result in an effect on the two of them. Mubarak

3 Organization  The objective approach suggests that an organization is a physical, concrete thing, that it is tangible and actually holds people, relationships, and goals. (container view of organization)  A subjective approach looks at an organization as activities that people do. Organization consists of the actions, interactions, and transactions in which people engage. Organization is created and maintained through the continually changing contacts people have with one another and does not exist separately from the people whose behavior constitutes the organization. Mubarak

4 Definition of Organizational Communication: A program that focuses on general communication processes and dynamics within organizations. Includes instruction in the development and maintenance of interpersonal group relations within organizations; decision-making and conflict management; the use of symbols to create and maintain organizational images, missions, and values; power and politics within organizations; human interaction with computer technology; and how communications socializes and supports employees and team members. (source: U. S. Department of Education) Mubarak

5 The Communication Process Encodes Decodes Receiver Encodes Decodes Sender FeedbackFeedback ChannelChannel NoiseNoise Mubarak

6 Historical Trend Views can be Categorized 1. Org.communication as one aspect of organization Example of Drenth et al (1998) “ The sending and receiving of message by means of symbols and see org. communication as key element of org.climate.” 2. As underlying basis of organization itself Example of Myers and Myers (1982) “ The central binding force that permits coordination among people and thus allows for organized behavior.” Example of Rogers and Rogers ( 1976) “ The behavior of individuals in org. is best understood from communication point of view.” Mubarak

7 Continue  Organizations evolved in such a directions that make latter view more important. Changing an organizations confronts have make org comm important to over all organizational functions. Mubarak

8 Span of Organizational Communication  Highly diverse and fragmented (Patches)  Key distinctions with respect to org. communication involve i. Formal Vs informal ii. Directional (Vertical, Horizontal, Diagonal) iii. Levels iv. Internal vs external focus Mubarak

9 Formal Communication  Communication through officially designated channels of message flow between organization positions  Official information exchange  Usually found in organizational charts, policy manuals, or hierarchical structures Informal Communication  Episodes of interaction that do not reflect officially designated channels of communication.  is inherent and even a necessary aspect of organization life.  Pro: Creates a relaxed, comfortable climate Mubarak

10 Directional Communication  Vertical i. Downward ii. Upward  Horizontal  Diagonal Lateral Diagonal DownwardDownwardDownwardDownward UpwardUpwardUpwardUpward Mubarak

11 Vertical Communication Occurs between the hierarchically positioned persons Status and power are not equal among participants in vertical communication The flow of information both up and down the chain of command Downward comm is more prevalent than upward Formal communication Recognized as official Downward Comm is most effective if top managers communicate directly with supervisors and supervisors communicate with their staff (Larkin & Larkin: 1994) Mubarak

12 Downward Communication  flows from upper to lower (such as manager to employer or superior to subordinate).  Types of messages: job instructions, job rationales, procedures and practices information, feedback, and indoctrination. (Katz & Kahn, 1978)  Pro- efficient (fast) Con- managerial control  Problems:  information overload  lack of openness - withhold information even if sharing is important  filtering - some information is left out  message can be distorted by adding personal interpretation  the fewer the number of authority levels through which communication must pass, the less information will be lost or distorted Mubarak

13 International Association of Business Communication, Survey 32,000 Employees  higher satisfaction with downward communication:  71 percent reported that their organization tried to keep employees well informed.  65 percent agreed that they had been given sufficient information to perform their jobs.  51 percent agreed that their organization’s downward communication was candid (honest) and accurate.  Found employees want to hear more organizational news from top executives Mubarak

14 Level of certainty (Jablin 1980)  Top managers should communicate directly with immediate supervisors;  Immediate supervisors should communicate with their direct reports; and  On issues of importance, top managers should then follow-up by communicating with employees directly. Mubarak

15 Upward Communication  Transmission of messages from lower to higher levels of the organization ( comm initiated by subordinates with their superiors)  Types of messages: performance on the job, job related problems, fellow employees and their problems, subordinates perceptions of org policies and practices, tasks and procedures Pro: managers learn what’s going on  employees gain from the opportunity to communicate upward  promotes morale among all employees  facilitates downward communication Con: not enough superiors encourage subordinate Problems similar to those for downward communication Mubarak

16 Employee satisfaction with upward communication tends to be lower than their satisfaction with downward communication (Gibson 1985) management-based reasons  strategies often do not involve two-way communication.  are not packaged well employee-based reasons  Fear of reprisal – afraid to speak their minds  Filters – ideas/concerns are modified as they get transmitted upward  Time – managers give the impression that they don’t have the time to listen to employees. Mubarak

17 Horizontal Communication Flow of messages across functional areas at a given level of an organization (this permits people at the same level to comm directly). The flow of information between colleagues and peers Trend of flatten org have enhance its importance Informal communication Does not follow the chain of command Not recognized as official Mubarak

18 Pro:direct contact among managers  Integrate roles, task forces, and project teams  management information systems  create a culture of openness, honesty, trust, and mutual obligation  facilitates problem solving Con: Not efficient (time consuming) Mubarak

19 Diagonal Communication Communication that cuts across both work areas (functions) and organizational levels. in the interest of efficiency and speed. Important when members cannot communicate through upward, downward, or horizontal channels. Mubarak

20 COMMUNICATION WITHIN THE BRAIN: Our brain is a collection of separate parts that must learn to work together. To help explain this, neurophysiologist, Dr. Paul Maclean, who heads the federal government laboratory of brain evolution, has developed the concept of an evolutionary "triune" brain structure in his revolutionary book, The Triune Brain in Evolution. Mubarak

21 5-Steps of Communication  Identify your Purpose;  Analyze Your Audience.  Choose Your Idea.  Collect data to support your Idea.  Organize your Message. Mubarak

22 Levels Of Communication  Communication is frequently divided into following levels  Interpersonal communication  Group level communication  Organizational level communication  Inter-organizational level communication  Mass communication (information to lots of people at once ) Mubarak

23 Internal Vs External Communication  Internal communication involves the communication that exists within a company and can take many forms. Key to the success of an organization is communication from within. In order to effectively engage in two-way symmetrical relations, (the goal of public relations practitioners), communication is essential internally.  External communication covers how a provider interacts with those outside their own organization. This may be with the public, employers, community organizations, local authorities, job centers, careers offices, funding bodies, specialist agencies and other training providers. Mubarak

24 Communication Networks Sets of employees who have stable contact through which information is generated and transmitted. Types of Communication networks Chain Network Communication flows according to the formal chain of command, both upward and downward Wheel Network All communication flows in and out through the group leader (hub) to others in the group All-Channel Network Communication flows freely among all members of the work team Mubarak

25 Communication Networks and How They Rate on Effectiveness Criteria Chain Moderate High Moderate Speed Accuracy Emergence of leader Member satisfaction Criteria Fast High Low Fast Moderate None High WheelAll-Channel Mubarak

26 Grapevine The Social network of informal communication through which messages flow throughout the organization.  helps people to interpret the organization  conveys information that the formal system leaves unsaid “When the grapevine allows employees to know about a management decision almost before it is made, management must be doing something right.” Mubarak

27 One Way Vs Two Way Communication Receiver 4. Decoding 5. Perceived meaning Person B Sender 6. Intended meaning 7. Encoding Sender 1. Intended meaning 2. Encoding Person A 10. Intended meaning 9. Decoding (receiver) 8. Communication channel 3. Communication channel Two-way communication if B sends feedback to A One-way communication Mubarak

28 Barriers to Organizational Communication  Physical Barriers  Distortion  Lack of Subject Knowledge  Ambiguous, Muddled Messages  Semantics( The study of language with special concern for the meanings of words and other symbols.)  Rumors  Stress  Information overload  Failing to Communicate /Loss of Transmission  Hesitation to be candid  Narrow viewpoints  The message is delivered to the wrong audience Mubarak

29 Cont..  Unreliable transmission (due to noise or inconsistent sending)  Misreading non-verbal elements  Avoiding non-verbal elements  Status differences  Distorted perception  Organizational culture  Slowed communications  Boundary differences  Cultural, Linguistic, and Diversity Barriers  Not Listening/Selective hearing  Lack of basic communication skills. Mubarak

30 Psychological Barriers  Perception  Selectivity/exposure filtering out of unpleasant things and focusing on or recalling things not heard.  Retention filtering of things that feel good, and the tendency to forget those things that are painful.  Experiential Barriers  The difficulty in understanding things not personally experienced.  Emotions  Communication can involve tension, fear, anger and other emotions and can hamper ability to speak clearly  Emotions influence both what is said and what is heard.  Never blame someone else for a problem  Defensiveness  Adjustments people make to avoid acknowledging personal inadequacies that might reduce their self-esteem Mubarak

31 Written communication  With increased use of e-mail, managers substitute face-to-face communication with e- mail  Communication Objective Guidelines  Memos  Letters  Reports  Bulletin board notices  Posters  Computers/e-mail  Fax Mubarak

32 Effectiveness of Communication  Related to timing  Related to choice of channel  Related to message structure  Related to delivery style  Related to mode Mubarak

33 Requisites for a promotable Executive 1. Ability to Communicate 2. Ambition- Drive 3. College Education 4. Sound Decision Making Skills 5. Good Appearance 6. Ability to get things done with and through people. 7. Capacity for Hard work Mubarak

34 7 Cs in Communication/5Cs in verbal and 7 in written 1. Completeness 2. Conciseness 3. Consideration 4. Concreteness 5. Clarity 6. Courtesy 7. Correctness Mubarak

35 Completeness  Provide all necessary information.  Answer all questions asked.  Give something extra, when desirable. Mubarak

36 Conciseness  Eliminate wordy expressions.  Include only relevant material.  Avoid unnecessary repetition. Mubarak

37 Consideration  Focus on ‘you’ instead of ‘I’ or ‘we’.  Show audience benefit or interest in receiver.  Emphasize positive,pleasant facts. Mubarak

38 Concreteness  Use specific facts and figures.  Put actions in your verbs.  Choose vivid, image building words. Mubarak

39 Clarity  Choose precise, concrete and familiar words.  Construct effective sentences, and paragraph. Mubarak

40 Courtesy  Be sincerely tactful, thoughtful, and appreciative.  Use expressions that show respect.  Choose non discriminatory expressions. Mubarak

41 Correctness  Use the right level of language.  Check accuracy of figures, facts and words.  Maintain acceptable writing mechanics. Mubarak

42 Person to person communication in organization  Male to male.  Male to female.  Female to female.  Female to male. Mubarak

43 Male to male.  More formal.  Relevant to job. Mubarak

44 Male to female.  Sympathetic.  Relevant to job. Mubarak

45  More social.  Less relevant to job. Female to female. Mubarak

46 Female to male.  More courteous.  More relevant to job. Mubarak

47 Good communication is stimulating as black coffee, and just as hard to sleep after. Anne Morrow: American Writer and aviation pioneer (1906-2001) Mubarak

48 Communicate positively and truly. Thanks Mubarak

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