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35 years of Cognitive Linguistics Session 5: Conceptual integration Martin Hilpert.

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Presentation on theme: "35 years of Cognitive Linguistics Session 5: Conceptual integration Martin Hilpert."— Presentation transcript:

1 35 years of Cognitive Linguistics Session 5: Conceptual integration Martin Hilpert

2 your questions

3 How can we really know that every human being thinks in counterfactual ways? (Where is the evidence?) Does this not have to do with different personality types and different (pessimistic vs. optimistic) views on life?

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5 That is a tree I don't have.

6 house driveway house driveway tree

7 safe beach = non-compositional meaning What about other parts of speech? In the conceptual integration framework, is meaning ever compositional? toothbrush, hairbrush, paintbrush, airbrush

8 emergent structure?

9 emergent structure: meaning that is present in the blend but in none of the input spaces Laptop computers have been getting smaller, thinner, and more powerful. – input spaces: computers from different years – emergent structure: ‘slimming down’

10 A buddhist monk begins at dawn one day walking up a mountain, reaches the top at sunset, meditates at the top for several days, until one dawn when he begins to walk back to the foot of the mountain, where he reaches at sunset. Make no assumptions about his starting or stopping or about his pace during the trips. Is there a place on the path that the monk occupies at the same hour of the day on the two separate journeys?

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12 A buddhist monk begins at dawn one day walking up a mountain, reaches the top at sunset, meditates at the top for several days, until one dawn when he begins to walk back to the foot of the mountain, where he reaches at sunset. Make no assumptions about his starting or stopping or about his pace during the trips. Is there a place on the path that the monk occupies at the same hour of the day on the two separate journeys?

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16 Conceptual integration two or more input spaces (frames) vital relations between input spaces integration into a blended space selective projection into the blended space compression of vital relations emergent structures in the blended space

17 Conceptual integration two or more input spaces (frames) vital relations between input spaces integration into a blended space selective projection into the blended space compression of vital relations emergent structures in the blended space like conceptual metaphor?

18 Conceptual integration two or more input spaces (frames) vital relations between input spaces integration into a blended space selective projection into the blended space compression of vital relations emergent structures in the blended space

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20 Space 1: upward journey Space 2: downward journey

21 Space 1: upward journey Space 2: downward journey Vital relations: identity of place, path, the monk difference in time

22 Space 1: upward journey Space 2: downward journey Vital relations: identity of place, path, the monk difference in time A blend: two monks making the journey on the same day

23 Space 1: upward journey Space 2: downward journey Vital relations: identity of place, path, the monk difference in time A blend: two monks making the journey on the same day Compression: separate days are compressed into one Decompression: two monks

24 Space 1: upward journey Space 2: downward journey Vital relations: identity of place, path, the monk difference in time A blend: two monks making the journey on the same day Compression: separate days are compressed into one Decompression: two monks Emergent structure: encounter scenario

25 Conceptual Integration Networks Input 1 Input Blend

26 Input spaces (frames)

27 German politics US politics Germany with Obama as candidate The Germans might not have elected Obama. voters Obama Merkel presidency chancellor- ship voters

28 US politics Seafaring Clinton-ship stronger than the laws of physics If Clinton had been the Titanic, the iceberg would have sunk. ClintonTitanic collision scandal sinking iceberg..

29 Commercial air traffic Computing Community-based air traffic What if computer operating systems were airlines? UNIX: Each passenger brings a piece of the airplane and a box of tools to the airport. P U Pl S pilots open source attendants

30 hypothetical experience..... blend of actual and hypothetical I wonder if my brother and I would get along if he was still alive. ego actual experience ego brother

31 Frames available as input spaces near-identical scenarios myself with/without a brother myself 5 minutes earlier / later myself in your position conventional analogies US politics, German politics creative metaphors Clinton, Titanic Computing, air traffic

32 Vital relations (correspondences across frames) and their compression

33 What are vital relations? Time, Identity, Space, Role, Cause-Effect, among several others. Conceptual integration involves the compression of vital relations Different times, spaces, etc. are compressed into a single blended space.

34 Compression of different times

35 Compression of identities

36 Compression of different times and different identities

37 Compression of different times, spaces, and roles

38 Compression of cause and effect

39 Selective projection

40 What is selective projection? Not all elements of the input spaces have counterparts. Not all elements of the input spaces are projected into the blend. Titanic ~ Clinton collision ~ scandal journey ~ career lifeboats ~ ??? ??? ~ impeachment Conceptual integration is a creative, non- deterministic cognitive process.

41 Selective projection: winners only Noah Ngeny

42 Selective projection: diet only

43 Emergent structure

44 What are emergent structures? Conceptual integration is not the mere addition of two input spaces. Instead, the integration of two inputs creates new meanings that were not present in either of the sources. – Buddhist Monk: encounter scenario – World record: prior record holders aware of running against El Guerrouj, prior record holders lose out

45 Emergent structures surgeon butcher incompetent, careless surgeon, danger That surgeon is a butcher. S P B A Scalpel Cleaver Healing Severing

46 Emergent structures 1784 contemporary philosophy debate I claim that reason is a self-developing capacity. Kant disagrees with me. He says it is innate, but I answer that is begging the question, to which he counters that only innate ideas have power. But I ask, what about neuronal group selection? And he has no answer. Kant K‘ P Ideas English German Ideas

47 Conceptual integration in grammar

48 Negation “I see nobody on the road”, said Alice. “I only wish I had such eyes“, the King remarked, in a fretful tone. “To be able to see Nobody. And at that distance, too!“

49 Modality I would attend your talk, but I have a class to prepare. They have to score one more goal to win. You may now kiss the bride.

50 Causation Warning: Smoking causes impotence! My inner 3-year old made me do it. Experiences, not possessions, lead to greater happiness.

51 Clause linkage He speaks excellent French, even though he has never lived there. You only won because you cheated. I will believe that when I see it.

52 Compounding apple juice boat house money problem caffeine headache

53 morning activities P P alertness coffee headache morning activities headache no coffee

54 attributive constructions a red apple a likely candidate a safe distance a guilty pleasure an intellectual desert

55 Lexical items There is a missing chair! I have a hole in my pocket. I forgot my umbrella. That is a lie.

56 Interim summary Conceptual integration is the fusion of several input spaces into a new, blended space. It involves compression of vital relations such as time, space, identity, role, etc. It creates emergent structures that are not present in the input spaces. Conceptual integration is not limited to counterfactual conditional clauses, it extends over a multitude of grammatical domains.

57 Three differences between conceptual metaphor and conceptual integration

58 CMT: source and target vs. CI: several input spaces

59 six different races as inputs

60 Bill’s girlfriends are getting younger and younger.

61 CMT: mappings from source to target vs. CI: emergent structure

62 domain of WAR domain of ARGUMENTS Participants in an argument Raising objections Maintaining one’s opinion Giving up your opinion Fighting parties Attacking Defending Surrendering source domain target domain mappings

63 Conceptual Integration Networks Input 1 Input Blend

64 emergent structure: race of the winners

65 emergent structure That surgeon is a butcher. – Whence the idea of incompetence? The senator is a puppet of the oil industry. – Whence the idea of corruption?

66 CMT: the invariance principle vs. CI: the topology constraint

67 the invariance principle Metaphorical mappings preserve the cognitive topology (that is, the image-schema structure) of the source domain, in a way consistent with the inherent structure of the target domain. Entire image-schemas are mapped from source to target – balance: entity 1, entity 2, comparison between them

68 the topology constraint the image-schematic structure of the input spaces is mapped into the blend, so as to create a ‘match’

69 the topology constraint the image-schematic structure of the input spaces is mapped into the blend, so as to create a ‘match’ this ‘match’ may lead to the creation of a new image-schematic structure: ‘encounter’ is not present in either of the input spaces

70 Summing up

71 Conceptual integration like categorization, it is a domain-general cognitive ability closely related to conceptual metaphor different in three respects – more than two input domains – emergent meanings – topology from input spaces is preserved, but the result may differ considerably from either input space

72 Empirical research?

73 next time: frame semantics That day, the crew stayed on the land. That day, the crew stayed on the ground.

74 See you next time!


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