4Why Is Occlusion Important ? Assist in diagnosisPlanning in restorative careTo minimize failureEnsure predictable outcome by minimising loads on teethManaging the environment so that we get the minimal amountof surprises (Similar to wearing a car seatbelt), the less thepatient has to adapt the better.
5Definitions OCCLUSION A relationship between the masticatory surfaces of themaxillary and mandibular teethThe relationship between tooth contacts and mandibularmovements
6Centric OcclusionRelationship of the mandible to the maxilla when the teeth are in maximum occlusal contact, irrespective of the position or alignment of the condyle-disk assemblies.The relationship between the maxilla and mandiblewhen the teeth are maximally meshed with themandible in its most cranial position
7Centric RelationA relationship of the mandible to the skull where the condyle is in an anteriorly, superiorly braced position along the articular eminence of the glenoid fossa, with the articular disc interposed between the Condyle and eminence.
8Mandibular Movements a) Horizontal axis Mandibular movements occur around three axesa) Horizontal axisb) Vertical axisc) Sagittal axis
9Horizontal Axis (Rotation) This movement occurs in the sagittal plane when the mandible in centric relation makes a purely rotational opening and closing border movement around the transverse horizontal axis, which extends through both condyles.
10Vertical axis (Rotation) This movement occurs in the horizontal plane when the mandible moves into a lateral excursion. The center for this rotation is a vertical axis extending through the rotating or working-side condyle.
11Balancing side (Non working side) The side towards which the mandible moves during excursion OR Mandible moving toward the cheekWorking side condyle pivots within the socket and is better supported.Balancing side (Non working side)The side opposite to the direction in which the mandible moves OR Mandible moving toward the tongueBalancing side condyle has a downward orbiting path and is more prone to injury or damage.
12Condyle has downward path Balancing SideCondyle has downward pathWorking SideCondyle pivotsMovement directionMandible and TMJ
13Sagittal AxisThis movement occurs when mandible moves to working side, the condyle on the opposite side (Non working side) travels forward and downwards simultaneously. When viewed in the frontal plane, this produces a downward arc on the non working side, rotating about an anteroposterior (sagittal) axis passing through the other condyle
14Pure Hinge MovementIt occurs as the result of the condyles rotating in the lower compartments of the temporomandibular joints within a 10- to 13-degree arc, which creates a 20- to 25-mm separation of the anterior teeth
15Translation MovementOccurs when the mandible moves forward (protrusion)Teeth, condyles, and rami, all move in the same direction and to the same degree.Occurs within the superior cavity of the joint
16Maximum Opening (Translation & Rotation) Occurs in the upper compartment of the joint as the mandible drops down farther . Then the horizontal axis of rotation shifts to the area of the mandibular foramen, as the condyles translate forward and downward while continuing to rotate.
17Protrusive PositionWhen the mandible slides forward so that the maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth are in an end-to-end relationship, it is in a protrusive position.
18Bennett MovementIt is defined as “the bodily lateral movement/ lateral shift of mandible resulting from movements of condyles along lateral inclines of mandibular fossa during lateral jaw movement” Dr Norman Bennett
19Bennett AngleThe angle formed between the sagittal plane and the average path of advancing condyle as viewed in the horizontal plane during lateral mandibular movements. Average range is degreeBSCWSCBennett angleSagittal plane
20Posterior Determinant of Occlusion TMJ – Temporomandibular JointBony surfacesThe dentist has no control on the posterior determinants i.e. TMJ
21Anterior Determinant of Occlusion TeethIncisorsCaninesPremolarsMolars
22Anterior Determinants Of Occlusion Posterior teeth Provide vertical stops Guide mandible to CO Anterior teeth Guide mandible in protrusive, retrusive and lateral excursions The closer the tooth located to a determinant , more it will be influenced by it.
24Occlusal Interferences Interferences are undesirable occlusal contacts that may produce mandibular deviation during closure to maximum intercuspation or may hinder smooth passage to and from the intercuspal position .These can be of following typesCentricWorkingNon workingProtrusive
25Centric Interferences It is a premature contact that occurs when the mandible closes with the condyles in their optimum position in the glenoid fossae (CR) . It will cause deflection of the mandible in a posterior, anterior, and/or lateral direction
26Working Side Interference It occurs when there is contact between the maxillary and mandibular posterior teeth on the same side of the arches as the direction in which the mandible has moved. If that contact is heavy enough to dis-occlude anterior teeth, it is an interference .
27Non-Working Side Interference It is an occlusal contact between maxillary and mandibular teeth on the side of the arches opposite the direction in which the mandible has moved in a lateral excursion .It has the potential for damaging the teeth, PDL, MOM and TMJ due to changes in the mandibular leverage, the placement of forces outside the long axes of teeth and disruption of normal muscle function.
28Protrusive Interference It is a premature contact occurring between the mesial aspects of mandibular posterior teeth and the distal aspects of maxillary posterior teeth .The proximity of the teeth to the muscles and the oblique forces make them potentially destructive.They also interfere with the patient's ability to incise properly
30Ideal OcclusionAn ideal occlusion should provide comfort and function ina predictable way.1) Ideal occlusion at tooth levelCusp tip to fossa or cusp to marginal ridge contact – i.e no incline contacts2) Ideal occlusion at articulatory system levelPosterior stability, Anterior guidance, Lack of posterior interferences.3) Ideal occlusion at patient levelWithin the adaptability of the rest of the articulatory system.
31Features Of Ideal Occlusion Anterior Guidance:In lateral excursions of the mandible, working-side contacts (preferably on the canines) disocclude or separate the nonworking teeth instantly.In protrusive excursions, anterior tooth contacts will disocclude the posterior teeth.
33Features Of Ideal Occlusion B) Posterior stability:Enough posterior teeth in each arch with solid and stablecontacts in appropriate positions to evenly distribute loads andto allow the mandible to close in a reproducible CO. Posteriorteeth contact more heavily than anterior teethIt is enhanced by tall cusp – deep fossaMaintains teeth positionCO or ICP is easily reproducedIncreased masticatory functionSigns of lack of PS, drifting, fremitus, fractured rest, mobility & wear
35Features Of Ideal Occlusion C) Absence of posterior interferencesThe non-working side
36Features Of Ideal Occlusion D) Centric Occlusion is achieved at centricrelation positionE) Occlusal loads are axially transmitted throughthe teeth
37Organization Of Occlusion There are three recognized concepts that describe how teeth should contact in various mandibular positionsBilateral balanced occlusionUnilateral Balanced occlusion(Group function)3. Mutually protected occlusion(Canine protected)
38Bilateral Balanced Occlusion It dictates that a maximum number of teeth should contact in all excursive positions of the mandible.Use for complete denture occlusal scheme as contacts on non-working side prevent tipping of the dentureNot used for fixed prosthodontics, as very difficult to achieve
39Unilateral Balanced Occlusion Also called group functionIt requires teeth on the working side to be in contact in lateral excursion and teeth on the non-working side are free of any contact.Avoids destructive , oblique forces on the non-working side.Prevents wear of maxillary palatal and mandibular buccal cusps
40Mutually Protected Occlusion Also called canine protected occlusionAnterior teeth overlap prevents the posterior teeth from making any contact on either the working or the nonworking sides during mandibular excursions.Anterior teeth bear all the load and the posterior teeth are dis-occluded during excursions. Protecting the posterior teethIn CO, posterior teeth direct forces through their long axis and anterior teeth are slightly in or out of contact. Protecting the anterior teeth.
41Guidance Describes the influenced path the mandible takes as a result of the contacting surfacesof the teeth. Depending on the contact andshape of the teeth they should be inharmony
42Protrusive Guidance Influenced path the mandible takes as a result of a forward thrust
43Lateral Guidance Canine Describes the way in which lateral excursions are affected by tooth to tooth contacts involving the canine teeth only resulting in disclusion of the posterior teeth
44Lateral Guidance Group function When lateral excursions are guided by more than one tooth other than the canines
45Hanau’s QuintBy modifying the following five factors, a scheme of occlusion can be developed that will suit a particular patient best.1. Condylar guidance2. Incisal guidance3. Occlusal plane orientation4. Compensating curves5. Height of the CuspExcept for the condylar guidance, all other factors can be modified during thefabrication of a prosthesis and the anterior guidance plays a predominant role.
46Anterior GuidanceGuidance produced by the teeth themselves and not thetemporomandibular joint (can be on any tooth)The influence of contacting surfaces of anterior teeth on mandibular movements.The influence of contacting surfaces of the guide pin and anterior guide table on articulator movements.The fabrication of a relationship of the anterior teeth preventing the posterior tooth contact in all eccentric mandibular movements.
48Protrusive Incisal Path The track of the incisal edges of the mandibular teeth from maximum intercuspation to edge-to-edge occlusion.
49Protrusive Incisal Path Angle The angle formed by the protrusive incisal path and the horizontal reference plane is the protrusive incisal path inclination. It ranges from 50 – 70 degrees and is often 5-10º steeper than the sagittal condylar guidance.
50Incisal Guide AngleThe angle formed with the horizontal plane of occlusion and a line in the sagittal plane between the incisal edges of maxillary & mandibular central incisors when the teeth are in maximum intercuspation.The angle formed in the sagittal plane between the horizontal plane and the slope of the incisal guide table.
51Importance of Anterior Guidance Opening and closing of the mandible is simply a rotation of the condyles in the articular fossae.
52Importance of Anterior Guidance As anterior guidance is normally steeper than the condylar guidance, the anterior teeth guide the mandible downwards during protrusive or lateral movementand ..
53Importance of Anterior Guidance (during protrusive movement).. produces dis-occlusion or separation of the posterior teeth.
54Importance of Anterior Guidance (during lateral movement) C.G.OGroup FunctionW.SN.W.S
55Importance of Anterior Guidance Anterior guidance is linked to the combination of horizontal & vertical overlap of the anterior teeth and can affect the occlusal surface morphology of the posterior teeth.
56Inter-relationship with Vertical & Horizontal Overlap of the Anterior teeth Anterior guidance can be made steeper by either increasing the vertical overlap (overbite) ‘A-B’, or by reducing the horizontal overlap (over jet) ‘C-A’ of the anterior teeth.Anterior guidance can be made shallow by either decreasing the overbite ‘B-A’ or increasing the over jet ‘A-C’ of the ant. teeth.
57Condylar Guidance & Posterior tooth Morphology (without considering the role of A.G.) Shallow condylar guidance normally requires shallow cusp angle or short cusp height and steeper condylar guidance requires steep cusp angle or longer cusp height.
58‘side shift +’ ‘No side shift’ Condylar side-shift & Posterior tooth Morphology (without considering the role of A.G.)‘side shift +’ ‘No side shift’Similarly, in the presence of an immediate lateral side shift during lateral movement (Bennett’s movement) the cusp height and cusp angle should be shallow.
59Influence of Anterior Guidance on Posterior tooth Morphology
60Influence A.G. on Posterior tooth Morphology (Effect of Overbite) Greater overbite produces more disocclusion hence permits longer cusp heightLess overbite – less disocclusion – shorter Cusp height.
61Influence of A.G. on Posterior tooth Morphology (Effect of Over jet) Greater over jet necessitates shorter cusp height.Less over jet allows for long cusp height.
62Influence of A.G. on Posterior tooth Morphology Summarizing,greater anterior guidance allows posterior teeth to have longer cusp height&smaller anterior guidance requires posterior teeth to have shorter cusp height.
63Influence of A.G. on Posterior tooth Morphology By increasing the anterior guidance angle to compensate for inadequate or shallow condylar guidance, it is possible to increase the cusp height of the posterior teeth.
64Influence of A.G. on Posterior tooth Morphology Similarly, increasing the anterior guidance will permit lengthening of the cusp that otherwise have to be shorter in the presence of pronounced immediate lateral translation of the condyles.