Presentation on theme: "FORMS AND DIMENSIONS OF COMMUNICATION"— Presentation transcript:
1 FORMS AND DIMENSIONS OF COMMUNICATION CHANNELSNETWORKSFORMS AND DIMENSIONS OF COMMUNICATION
2 INTRODUCTIONCommunication may be classified or categorized on the following basis:1. Organizational structureFormalInformal2. Dimension/ Direction of communicationUpwardDownwardLateralDiagonalInwardOutward
4 CHANNELS OF COMMUNICATION: COMMUNICATION ON THE BASIS OF ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE Channels of communication may be classified into two categories:FormalInformalFormal Channel of CommunicationIt defined as a means of communication that is formally controlled by managers or people occupying positions in an organization. Communication flows through formal channels. Any information, decision, memo or reminder etc., will also follow this path.
5 Organizational Pyramid/Structure BOARD OF DIRECTORSMANAGING DIRECTORTOP LEVEL MANAGEMENTMIDDLE LEVEL MANAGEMENTSENIOR SUPERVISORSFIRST LINE SUPERVISORSEMPLOYEES/SHOP FLOOR EMPLOYEESInformal Channel of CommunicationSide by side with the formal channel of communication every organization has an equally effective channel of communication namely that is the informal channel. It is not officially sanctioned.
6 Informal Communication :Beyond the Organizational Hierarchy When anyone can tell anyone else anything informally the result is a rapid flow of information along what is commonly called the grapevineUnofficial information travelsFactors responsible for grapevineFeeling of insecurityLack of confidenceFormation of favoured groupSome unusual happening in the organizationPersonal problems of the employees
7 Types of Grapevine Chains Single strand chain-A tells something to B who tells it to CGroup chain-One person seeks out and tells everyone theinformation he has receivedProbability chain-Tells at randomCluster chain-Few selectedCont….
8 Advantages of informal communication Speedy transmissionFeedback valueSupport to other channelsPsychological satisfactionUniting forceCreation of ideasGood personal relations
9 DisadvantagesCannot be taken seriouslyDoes not carry complete informationDistorts informationIt may prove counter productiveChances of misinterpretationLack of accountability
10 AssignmentEffective use of the grapevine in the organization
11 COMMUNICATION ON THE BASIS OF DIRECTION/ DIMENSION Communication is multidimensional or multidirectional. There are various directions in which it flows. Within the organization, communication may flow inter scalar or intra scalar, upward or downward. Communication with the outside world may be Inward or Outward.Let's understand these dimensions are :DownwardUpwardHorizontal or lateralDiagonal or crosswiseInwardOutward
12 Downward communication WrittenInstructionsMemorandaLettersHandbookspolicy statementsprocedures electronic news displaysothersOralInstructionsSpeechesMeetingsTelephoneLoudspeakerothersCont….
13 Upward CommunicationCommunication that flows from bottom to top, or which is from lower hierarchical level to higher level, is called upward communication. The main function of upward communication is to supply information to the upper levels about what is happening at the lower levels.
14 THE CONCEPT OF OMBUDSPERSON(Swedish word Commissioner appointed to investigate complaints ) Lateral or Horizontal CommunicationWhen communication takes place between two or more persons who are subordinates working under the same person, or those who are working at the same level, it is called lateral or horizontal communication. Communication transferred through lateral means includes interdepartmental reports, requests, suggestions and informal communication among peers at the same level and so on.
15 Lateral Communication Diagonal Communication Marketing Manager Production MgrMarketing Manager Training ManagerMarketing Supervisor Training Supervisor
16 Vertical Communication Marketing ManagerDownwardCommunicationUpwardcommunicationMarketingSupervisor
17 Diagonal or Crosswise Communication Diagonal or crosswise communication includes flow of information among persons at different levels who have no direct reporting relationships.Diagonal or crosswise communicationWrittencompany news paper/magazinebulletin boardsin house journal or communiqueOralinformal meetingslunch hour meetingsformal conferencesproject organization meetingsadvisory authority interactionswith line managers of different deptts.
18 These may be in the form of letters emails offers orders requests Inward CommunicationInward Communication includes all the information received by the organization from external agencies, which may be:other organizationsgovernment,suppliers,customers,competitorsshareholdersmedia.These may be in the form ofletterssoffersordersrequestssuggestionscomplaintsnotices and so on.Cont….
19 Outward Communication The communication which the organization maintains with the outside world is called outward communication.Outward communication it may be in the form of:advertisementsmedia interactionpublic relationsnegotiationsmailstelegramsletterstendersnoticestelephonic conversations and so on.
20 FORMS OF COMMUNICATION Forms of communication, can be divided into verbal or non verbal communication. Verbal communication may be oral or written. It depends upon the manner in which the message in expressed. If, it is expressed through the mouth, it is oral communication. This also includes face to face conversation, dialogue, interviews, meetings, conferences, telephonic conversation and so on. When the message is expressed through written language symbols, it is written communication and it includes reports, letters, mails, telegrams, orders and memos. When no words are used and only symbols, colours, signs, sounds or expressions help to express a message, it is termed as non verbal communication.FORMS OF COMMUNICATIONVERBAL NON VERBALORAL WRITTEN
21 Oral CommunicationImmediate feedbackShorter SentencesMore informalConversational focusPrompt actionFocus on relationsLess detailed technical informationMore personal pronounsSimpler constructionLesser focus on grammarLocal phrases and idioms are usedWritten CommunicationDelayed feedbackLonger sentencesLonger wordsMore formalFocus on content and precisionDelayed actionFocus on actionsMore detailed technical informationFewer personal pronounsMore complex constructionsUseful documentGrammar accuracy
22 COMMUNICATION NETWORKS OR PATTERNS OF COMMUNICATION Given below are the most important patterns of communication or ‘communication nets:’a) Wheel/ Yi) Three-person wheel communication pattern.ii) Five-person wheel communication pattern.iii) Five-person ‘Y’ wheel communication pattern.
23 CircleFour-person circle communication pattern.Five-person circle communication pattern.c) All channelFour-person all channel communication pattern.Five-person all channel communication pattern.d) Kitee) Chainf) Slash
24 FACTORS INFLUENCING ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION The communication system of an organization is generally influenced by four factorsFormal channels of communicationAuthority structureJob specialization ownershipInformation ownership
25 ImportanceEffective communication is the most important ingredient of an organization.Organization –effective communication system.Achievement of organizational objectives .- Proper coordination- Integration of employees in an organization.Social glue –keeps the organization together.Enhances own productivity and Organizations. (Dhirubhai Ambani)
26 Benefits Effective communication Enhanced Professional image Better quality of documentsIncreaseproductivityEffective communicationLesser misunderstandingStrongerdecision makingIncreasedawareness amongQuicker problem solvingImprovedcustomer relationshipHealthierbusiness relationship