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Presentation on theme: "CHANNELS NETWORKS FORMS AND DIMENSIONS OF COMMUNICATION."— Presentation transcript:


2 INTRODUCTION Communication may be classified or categorized on the following basis: 1. Organizational structure  Formal  Informal 2.Dimension/ Direction of communication  Upward  Downward  Lateral  Diagonal  Inward  Outward

3 3. Expression  Written  Oral  Non Verbal 4. Formation of networks  Wheel network  Y network  Chain network  All channel  Kite  Slash

4 CHANNELS OF COMMUNICATION: COMMUNICATION ON THE BASIS OF ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE Channels of communication may be classified into two categories: a) Formal b) Informal Formal Channel of Communication It defined as a means of communication that is formally controlled by managers or people occupying positions in an organization. Communication flows through formal channels. Any information, decision, memo or reminder etc., will also follow this path.

5 BOARD OF DIRECTORS MANAGING DIRECTOR TOP LEVEL MANAGEMENT MIDDLE LEVEL MANAGEMENT SENIOR SUPERVISORS FIRST LINE SUPERVISORS EMPLOYEES/SHOP FLOOR EMPLOYEES Organizational Pyramid/Structure Informal Channel of Communication Side by side with the formal channel of communication every organization has an equally effective channel of communication namely that is the informal channel. It is not officially sanctioned.

6 Informal Communication :Beyond the Organizational Hierarchy When anyone can tell anyone else anything informally the result is a rapid flow of information along what is commonly called the grapevine Unofficial information travels Factors responsible for grapevine Feeling of insecurity Lack of confidence Formation of favoured group Some unusual happening in the organization Personal problems of the employees

7 Types of Grapevine Chains Single strand chain-A tells something to B who tells it to C Group chain-One person seeks out and tells everyone the information he has received Probability chain-Tells at random Cluster chain-Few selected Cont….

8 Advantages of informal communication Speedy transmission Feedback value Support to other channels Psychological satisfaction Uniting force Creation of ideas Good personal relations

9 Disadvantages Cannot be taken seriously Does not carry complete information Distorts information It may prove counter productive Chances of misinterpretation Lack of accountability

10 Assignment Effective use of the grapevine in the organization

11 COMMUNICATION ON THE BASIS OF DIRECTION/ DIMENSION Communication is multidimensional or multidirectional. There are various directions in which it flows. Within the organization, communication may flow inter scalar or intra scalar, upward or downward. Communication with the outside world may be Inward or Outward. Let's understand these dimensions are : a) Downward b) Upward c) Horizontal or lateral d) Diagonal or crosswise e) Inward f) Outward

12 Written  Instructions  Memoranda  Letters  Handbooks  policy statements  procedures electronic news displays  others Oral  Instructions  Speeches  Meetings  Telephone  Loudspeaker  others Downward communication Cont….

13 Upward Communication Communication that flows from bottom to top, or which is from lower hierarchical level to higher level, is called upward communication. The main function of upward communication is to supply information to the upper levels about what is happening at the lower levels.

14 THE CONCEPT OF OMBUDSPERSON(Swedish word Commissioner appointed to investigate complaints ) Lateral or Horizontal Communication When communication takes place between two or more persons who are subordinates working under the same person, or those who are working at the same level, it is called lateral or horizontal communication. Communication transferred through lateral means includes interdepartmental reports, requests, suggestions and informal communication among peers at the same level and so on.

15 Lateral Communication Diagonal Communication Marketing Manager Production Mgr Marketing Manager Training Manager Marketing Supervisor Training Supervisor

16 Vertical Communication Marketing Manager Upward communication Downward Communication Marketing Supervisor

17 Diagonal or Crosswise Communication Diagonal or crosswise communication includes flow of information among persons at different levels who have no direct reporting relationships. Written company news paper/magazine bulletin boards in house journal or communique Oral informal meetings lunch hour meetings formal conferences project organization meetings advisory authority interactions with line managers of different deptts. Diagonal or crosswise communication

18 Inward Communication Inward Communication includes all the information received by the organization from external agencies, which may be:  other organizations  government,  suppliers,  customers,  competitors  shareholders  media. These may be in the form of  letters  s  offers  orders  requests  suggestions  complaints  notices and so on. Cont….

19 Outward Communication The communication which the organization maintains with the outside world is called outward communication. Outward communication it may be in the form of:  advertisements  media interaction  public relations  negotiations  mails  telegrams  letters  tenders  notices  telephonic conversations and so on.

20 FORMS OF COMMUNICATION Forms of communication, can be divided into verbal or non verbal communication. Verbal communication may be oral or written. It depends upon the manner in which the message in expressed. If, it is expressed through the mouth, it is oral communication. This also includes face to face conversation, dialogue, interviews, meetings, conferences, telephonic conversation and so on. When the message is expressed through written language symbols, it is written communication and it includes reports, letters, mails, telegrams, orders and memos. When no words are used and only symbols, colours, signs, sounds or expressions help to express a message, it is termed as non verbal communication. FORMS OF COMMUNICATION VERBALNON VERBAL ORALWRITTEN

21 Oral Communication Immediate feedback Shorter Sentences More informal Conversational focus Prompt action Focus on relations Less detailed technical information More personal pronouns Simpler construction Lesser focus on grammar Local phrases and idioms are used Written Communication Delayed feedback Longer sentences Longer words More formal Focus on content and precision Delayed action Focus on actions More detailed technical information Fewer personal pronouns More complex constructions Useful document Grammar accuracy

22 COMMUNICATION NETWORKS OR PATTERNS OF COMMUNICATION Given below are the most important patterns of communication or ‘communication nets:’ a)Wheel/ Y i)Three-person wheel communication pattern. ii)Five-person wheel communication pattern. iii)Five-person ‘Y’ wheel communication pattern.

23 b) Circle i) Four-person circle communication pattern. ii) Five-person circle communication pattern. c) All channel i) Four-person all channel communication pattern. ii) Five-person all channel communication pattern. d)Kite e)Chain f)Slash

24 FACTORS INFLUENCING ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION The communication system of an organization is generally influenced by four factors 1. Formal channels of communication 2. Authority structure 3. Job specialization ownership 4. Information ownership

25 Importance Effective communication is the most important ingredient of an organization. Organization –effective communication system. Achievement of organizational objectives. - Proper coordination - Integration of employees in an organization. Social glue –keeps the organization together. Enhances own productivity and Organizations. (Dhirubhai Ambani)

26 Benefits Effective communication Enhanced Professional image Stronger decision making Increase productivity Quicker problem solving Healthier business relationship Improved customer relationship Increased awareness among Better quality of documents Lesser misunder standing


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