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Atmospheric Neutrinos Barry Barish Bari, Bologna, Boston, Caltech, Drexel, Indiana, Frascati, Gran Sasso, L’Aquila, Lecce, Michigan, Napoli, Pisa, Roma.

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Presentation on theme: "Atmospheric Neutrinos Barry Barish Bari, Bologna, Boston, Caltech, Drexel, Indiana, Frascati, Gran Sasso, L’Aquila, Lecce, Michigan, Napoli, Pisa, Roma."— Presentation transcript:

1 Atmospheric Neutrinos Barry Barish Bari, Bologna, Boston, Caltech, Drexel, Indiana, Frascati, Gran Sasso, L’Aquila, Lecce, Michigan, Napoli, Pisa, Roma I, Texas, Torino MACRO

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3 Neutrino event topologies in MACRO Detector mass ~ 5.3 kton Event Rate: (1) up throughgoing  (ToF) ~160 /y (2) internal upgoing  (ToF) ~ 50/y (3) internal downgoing  (no ToF) ~ 35/y (4) upgoing stopping  (no ToF) ~ 35/y Absorber Streamer Scintillator (1)(2)(3) (4)

4 Energy spectra of events detected in MACRO  ~ 100 GeV for throughgoing   ~ 5 GeV for internal upgoing   ~ 4 GeV for internal downgoing  and for upgoing stopping   Low energy events allow us to investigate the oscillation parameter space independently of the throughgoing muon data

5 Neutrino induced upward-going muons identified by the time-of-flight method   scintillator streamer track   T 2 -T 1 ) * c / l

6 Upward throughgoing muons External -interactions768 events upward vs downward muons

7 Background source for  events: pion production by downward  ’s (MACRO Collab., Astroparticle Phys. 9(‘98)105) rate of downgoing  ’s ~10 5 x rate of upgoing  ’s background mainly pions produced at large angles by  interactions in the rock around the detector (  + N  +  ± + X) Estimated background in MACRO: ~ 5% for the stopping muon sample (MACRO Coll., PL B478 (‘00) 5) ~ 1% for the up-throughgoing m (>200 g/cm 2 cut) MACRO Coll., PL B434 (‘98) 451)  

8 Pion production at large angle upgoing charged  produced by  interactions in the rock under the detector a background source for upward stopping and throughgoing muons studied 243 events with downgoing  plus upgoing particles  Estimated background - upward throughgoing  ’s: ~1% - low energy events:~5%

9 Total observed flux and comparison with Monte Carlo Data number of events: 768 events background (wrong  )18 background (  ’s from muons)12.5 Internal neutrino interactions14.6 Total 723 events Prediction (Monte Carlo) 989 ± 17% Bartol neutrino Flux (±14%) GRV-LO-94 cross section (± 9%) Lohmann muon energy loss (± 5%) data/prediction R = ± stat ± syst ± theor

10 Effects of  oscillations on MACRO events Flux reduction depending on zenith angle for the upward throughgoing events Earth  underground detector L ~ km distortion of the angular distribution

11 Zenith angle distribution E  > 1 GeV

12 Probabilities of    oscillations (for maximal mixing) Probability The peak probability from the angular distribution agrees with the peak probability from the total number of events Probability for no-oscillation: ~ 0.4 %

13 Probabilities for sterile neutrino oscillations with maximum mixing Peak probabilities lower than that for tau neutrinos: from the angular distribution: 4.1 % from combination: 14.5 % Probability

14 Probabilities for sterile neutrino oscillations

15 Test of oscillations with the ratio vertical / horizontal Ratio (Lipari- Lusignoli, Phys Rev D ) can be statistically more powerful than a  2 test: 1) the ratio is sensitive to the sign of the deviation 2) there is gain in statistical significance Disadvantage: the structure in the angular distribution of data can be lost. Measured value ~ 2  (and one sided) from the expected value for sterile neutrino

16 Internal upward going  events From MC simulation: E ~ 5 GeV ~ 87% due to  -CC interactions Results: Phys. Lett. B478 (2000) 5 (141 events) Data - Background = 135 events  distribution after all analysis cuts: Upgoing internal muons

17 Internal Downgoing  ’s and Upward Going Stopping  ’s from MC simulation : E ~ 4 GeV mixture  upward going stopping  ~ 50%  internal downgoing  ~ 87% from  –charged current events DATA - Background = 229 events Upward going stopping Internal downgoing

18 Data vs Monte Carlo Predictions  : Bartol flux with geomagnetic cutoffs (error ~ 20%)  = Q.E. + 1  (Lipari et al., PRL74 (1995) 4384) + DIS (GRV-LO-94 PDF) (error ~ 15%)  (E ,  zenith ): detector response and acceptance (systematic error ~ 10 %) MC: 247  25 sys  62 theo DATA:135  12 stat MC:329  33 sys  82 theo DATA:229  15 stat Internal down + Upgoing stop Internal upward going  ’s Low Energy Neutrino Events

19 Internal upward events maximum mixing  m 2  = 2.5 x eV 2 expected 247 ± 62 thor real data 135 ± 12 stat events Data consistent with a constant deficit in all zenith angle bins (  2 /d.o.f. = 3.1/4 on shape) Probability for NO oscillations: ~ 4.3% (one side)

20 Internal downward + Upward stopping events expected 329 ± 82 th real data 229 ± 15 stat events maximum mixing  m 2  = 2.5 x eV 2 Data consistent with a constant deficit in all zenith angle bins Probability for NO oscillations: ~ 12% (one side)

21 (Internal upward) / (Internal downward + Upward stopping) Most of the theor. uncertainties canceled (<5%) Systematic errors reduced (~6%) Data: R = 0.59 ± 0.07 stat Expected (No oscillations): R = 0.75 ± 0.04 sys ± 0.04 th compatibility ~ 2.7% Expected    oscillations R = 0.58 ± 0.03 sys ± 0.03 th ( maximal mixing and  m 2 = 2.5 x eV 2 ) Ratio of event types at low energy

22 + upgoing internal upgoing stop internal downgoing Most of the theor. uncertainties canceled < 5% Systematic errors reduced ~ 6% Data: R = 0.59 ± 0.07 stat Expected (No oscillations): R = 0.75 ± 0.04 sys ± 0.04 th Expected    oscillations R = 0.58 ± 0.03 sys ± 0.03 th maximal mixing  m 2 = 2.5 x eV 2

23 MACRO  events: confidence level regions for    oscillation

24 Summary and Conclusions  High energy events:     oscillation favoured with large mixing angle and  m 2 ~ 2.5x10 -3 eV 2  sterile disfavoured at ~ 2  level  Low energy events:  event deficit with respect to expectation different for Internal upward, and internal downward + Uuward going stopping  no zenith angle distortion  compatibility between result and expectation (no oscillations) with a probability < 3 %  agreement with hypothesis of  oscillation with large mixing angle and <  m 2 < 2x10 -2 eV 2  A consistent scenario arises from both high and low energy MACRO events


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