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15-1. Chapter Communicating 15 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Management, 7/e Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Presentation on theme: "15-1. Chapter Communicating 15 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Management, 7/e Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved."— Presentation transcript:

1 15-1

2 Chapter Communicating 15 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Management, 7/e Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

3 15-3 Learning Objectives  After Studying Chapter 15, You will know  The important advantages of two-way communication.  Communication problems to avoid.  When and how to use the various communication channels.  Ways to become a better “sender” and “receiver” of information.  How to improve downward, upward, and horizontal communication.  How to work with the company grapevine.  The advantages and characteristics of the boundaryless organization.

4 15-4 Interpersonal Communication  Communication is the transmission of information and meaning from one party to another through the use of shared symbols

5 15-5 One-Way versus Two-Way  One-way communication is a process in which information flows in only one direction – from the sender to the receiver; with no feedback loop  One-way communication is more common because it is easier  Two-way communication is a process in which information flows in two directions – the receiver provides feedback, and the sender is receptive to the feedback  Two-way communication is more difficult and time consuming than one-way communication

6 15-6 Communication Pitfalls  Errors can occur in all stages of the communication process  Encoding errors include the misuse of words, decimal points entered in the wrong place, and ambiguous phrases  Decoding problems include poor listening on the part of the receiver, reading too quickly, and overlooking key points  Generally it is the individuals perceptual and filtering processes that create misinterpretations  Perception is the process of receiving and interpreting information  Filtering is the process of withholding, ignoring, or distorting information

7 15-7 Mixed Signals and Misperception  People’s perceptions can undermine attempts to communicate  People do not pay attention to everything going on around them  People inadvertently send mixed signals that can undermine the intended message  Different people attend to different things, and people interpret the same thing in different ways

8 15-8 Intercultural Communication

9 15-9 Oral and Written Channels  Oral communication includes face-to-face discussion, telephone conversations, and formal presentations and speeches  Advantages art that questions can be asked and answered; feedback is immediate and direct; and it is more persuasive  Disadvantages are that it can lead to spontaneous, ill-considered statements; and that there is no permanent record  Written communication includes memos, letters, reports, computer files, and other written documents  Advantages are that the message can be revised several times, there is a permanent record, the receiver has more time to analyze the message, and the it stays the same even if relayed through many people  Disadvantages are that the sender has no control over where, when or if the message is read; no immediate feedback, and the message must be longer

10 15-10 Electronic Media  Electronic media allows managers to use computers not only to gather and distribute quantitative data but to talk with others electronically  Teleconferencing allows groups of people in different locations to interact over phone lines, and perhaps also to see one another on monitors during discussions  E-mail, instant messaging, and blogging are other types of electronic media

11 15-11 Electronic Media  Advantages include:  More information is shared with greater speed and efficiency  Reduces time spent raveling, talking, and photocopying  Reduces costs  Can improve decision making  Disadvantages include:  Difficulty solving complex problems that require more extended face-to-face interaction  Inability to pick up subtle, nonverbal, or inflectional clues about what the communicator is thinking  Information leaks  Lost time from private use of e-mail and instant messaging

12 15-12 Managing the Electronic Load  Even though electronic communication media may seem essential and people wonder how they ever worked without it, the sheer volume of electronic communication can be overwhelming  To manage the amount of electronic communication managers should:  Separate the truly important form the routing; prioritize your time around truly important goals  Make sure IM’s and e-mails are not sent to the wrong person  Don’t think of e-mail as private  Don’t hit ‘reply to all’ when you should only hit reply  E-mail golden rule: don’t hit send unless you’d be comfortable having the contents on the front page of a newspaper

13 15-13 The Virtual Office  The virtual office is a mobile office in which people can work anywhere, as long as they have the tools to communicate with customers and colleagues  Based on the philosophy that management’s focus should be on what people do not where they are

14 15-14 Media Richness  Media richness refers to the amount of information a medium can convey  The more information or cues a medium sends to the receiver, the ‘richer’ the medium is

15 15-15 Improving Communication Skills: Improving Sender Skills  Honest, direct, straight talk is important but all too rare  People should be able to identify your perspective, your reasoning, and your intentions  Effective writing is more than correct spelling, punctuation, and grammar (although these help!)  Good writing requires clear, logical thinking  Strive for clarity organization, readability, and brevity

16 15-16 Improving Sender Skills  When called upon to present a persuasive message your attitude is very important  Persuasion is a process of learning from each other and negotiating a shared solution  Effective persuasion is an attempt to find an emotional connection with the other person  The most powerful and persuasive messages are simple and informative, are told with stories and anecdotes, and convey excitement  Remember that word choice can enhance or interfere with the communication process  Consider the other person’s background  Avoid jargon and slang

17 15-17 Improving Your Presentations

18 15-18 Non Verbal Skills  Nonverbal messages can support or undermine the stated message  You should give nonverbal signals that express warmth, respect, concern, a feeling of equality, and a willingness to listen  Negative nonverbal signals show coolness, disrespect, lack of interest, and a feeling of superiority  Suggestions for sending the right nonverbal cues include  Use time appropriately  Make your office arrangement conducive to open communication  Remember your body language

19 15-19 Nonverbal Skills in Other Countries  Nodding the head up and down Bulgaria means no  The American A-OK gesture is vulgar in Brazil, Singapore, Russia, and Paraguay  In Buddhist cultures never touch someone’s head because it is sacred  Never touch or eat anything with the left hand in Muslim cultures because I is unclean

20 15-20 Improving Receiver Skills  In today’s demanding work environment, managers need better listening skills  Reflection is a process by which a person states what he or she believes the other person is saying  Listening begins with personal contact  Reading mistakes are common and costly  Read thins as soon as possible  Note important points  Read materials that fall outside your immediate concerns

21 15-21 Improving Receiver Skills  Effective communicators are also capable of observing and interpreting nonverbal communications  A vital source of useful observations comes from personally visiting people, plants, and other locations to get a firsthand view  You must accurately interpret what you observe

22 15-22 Downward Communication  Downward communication refers to the flow of information from higher to lower levels in the organization’s hierarchy  Problems with downward communication include:  Information overload  Lack of openness between managers and employees  Filtering information as it moves through the organization’s hierarchy

23 15-23 Downward Communication

24 15-24 Downward Communication  Some of the most important downward communication occurs when managers provide performance feedback  Coaching is dialogue with a goal of helping another be more effective and achieve his or her full potential on the job  Open-book management is the practice of sharing with employees at all levels of the organization vital information previously meant for management’s eyes only

25 15-25 Upward Communication  Upward communication travels from lower to higher ranks in the hierarchy  Upward communication is important because:  Manager’s learn what’s going on  Employees gain from the opportunity to communicate upward  Effective upward communication facilitates downward communication as good listening becomes a two-way street

26 15-26 Upward Communication  Problems common in upward communication are similar to those for downward communication  People tend to share only good news with their bosses and suppress bad news because they:  Want to appear competent  Mistrust their boss and fear that punishment for their actions  Fear the boss will punish the messenger  Believe they are helping their boss if they shield him or her from problems

27 15-27 Managing Upward Communication  Generating useful information from below requires that managers both facilitate and motivate upward communication  Use an open door policy  Have lunch with employees  Use surveys  Practice MBWA (Management by wandering around)

28 15-28 Horizontal Communication  Horizontal communication is information that is shared among people on the same hierarchical level  Horizontal communication has several important functions  It allows sharing of information, coordination, and problem solving among units  Helps solve conflicts  Provides social and emotional support to people

29 15-29 Informal Communication  Informal communication is generally unofficial communication between organizational members at all levels  Grapevine is the social network of informal communication  Many times the grapevine will carry rumors and gossip which can be destructive  Managers must work with the grapevine by  Talking to the key people involved to get the facts and their perspectives  Preventing rumors from starting through open communication  Neutralizing rumors once they have started

30 15-30 Boundarylessness  A boundaryless organization is one in which there are no barriers to information flow  It implies information is available as needed moving quickly and easily enough so that the organization functions far better as a whole than its separate parts

31 15-31 Looking Ahead  After Studying Chapter 16, You will know:  Why companies develop control systems for employees  How to design a basic bureaucratic control system  The purposes for using budgets as a control device  How to interpret financial ratios and other financial controls  The procedures for implementing effective control systems  The different ways in which market control mechanisms are used by organizations  How clan control can be approached in an empowered organization

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