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DESCRIBING TRENDS OR MOVEMENTS IN GRAPHS/CHARTS. How to describe graphs and charts:

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Presentation on theme: "DESCRIBING TRENDS OR MOVEMENTS IN GRAPHS/CHARTS. How to describe graphs and charts:"— Presentation transcript:

1 DESCRIBING TRENDS OR MOVEMENTS IN GRAPHS/CHARTS

2 How to describe graphs and charts:

3 TRENDS AND MOVEMENTS  upward trend (e.g. increase)  stability (no change) (e.g. be stable)  change of directions (e.g. recover)  downward trend (e.g. fall) Language: nouns, verbs, adverbs, adjectives, prepositions, time adverbials, sentence structure

4 Such language is widely used in business …  Britain’s economy grew AT its slowest annual rate for 12 years in the second quarter.  A recent survey has reported the fastest-ever year-on-year sales decline.  Germany’s August sales fell for the third month in a row. (for the third consecutive month)

5 Such language is widely used in business …  A plunge IN sales was recorded in America.  Consumer confidence is declining sharply.  Wal-Mart’s sales increased BY 0.2% TO $76.8 bn in the second quarter.  Tesco’s sales were up 14% TO ₤18.8bn. (sales are up ≠ sales are down)  rising fuel costs / increasing household debt (falling...) (decreasing...)

6 NOUN VERB  increase  rise  growth  decrease  fall  decline  drop  fluctuation  increase  rise, rose, risen  grow, grew, grown  decrease  fall, fell, fallen  decline  drop, dropped, dropped  fluctuate

7 PREPOSITIONS  to rise from $1m to $2m  to increase (by) 100%  an increase of 100%  to fall from $2m to $1m  to decrease (by) 50%  a decrease of 50% A rise in sales, a fall in profits,... Sales are at last year’s level.The price is at €2.5 per litre.

8 Translate (Reader):  povećanje cijene od 15%  povećati cijenu za 15%  povisiti cijenu na 23,000  povisiti cijenu za 23,000  Cijena je na $2.3.  An increase in the price of 15% (A 15% increase in the price)  To increase the price by 15%  To increase the price to 23,000  To increase the price by 23,000  The price is at $2.3.

9 PODRAVKA MAKES HRK21m PROFIT Podravka, the Koprivnica-based food producer, made a net profit HRK21m last year. The company’s total income increased per cent reaching HRK2.4bn in This year, its first quarter income went up HRK631m, a rise per cent. Last year, Podravka’s sales grew per cent HRK2.3bn. They were HRK 596.5m in the first quarter of this year, an increase per cent. (HINA, 1998)

10 PODRAVKA MAKES HRK21m PROFIT Podravka, the Koprivnica-based food producer, made a net profit (1)of HRK21m last year. The company’s total income increased (2)by7.1 per cent reaching HRK2.4bn in This year, its first quarter income went up (3)to HRK631m, a rise (4) of 11 per cent. Last year, Podravka’s sales grew (5) by 7.56 per cent (6) to HRK2.3bn. They were (7) at HRK 596.5m in the first quarter of this year, an increase 8of 12 per cent. (HINA, 1998)

11 Verbs describing trends (Study next slide and fill in the chart) RISE ↗ FALL ↘ NO CHANGE → CHANGE OF DIRECTION ∩ U

12 Verbs to use:  Level off  Rise  Remain constant  Hold steady  Drop  Reach a high  Climb back  Plunge  Decline  Fluctuate  Reach a low  Recover  Reach a peak/Peak  Falter  Go up  Increase  Slump  Boom  Flatten out  Escalate  Stabilize  Collapse  Slip back  Soar  Rocket  Crash  Grow  Fall  Bottom out  Pick up  Go down  Decrease  Decline

13 Intensity Adjectives and adverbs (MK p.185/186) e.g.  to rise suddenly/ a sudden rise in  to drop sharply / a sharp drop in  fall slightly / a slight fall in  to decrease moderately/ a moderate decrease in...

14 Guidelines to describe a chart (Reader):  Describe the general trend e.g. A downward trend is noticed in the retail sales in  When did it peak/reach a low?  Time: In what period...? For how long....? e.g. in the period between March and June 2005, in the first quarter of 2005, in the second half of 2005, for three consecutive months...  How intensive/quick was the change?

15 Back to describing graphs and charts:

16 Graph description (see next slide for analysis)  In the period between Feb 1999 and Jan 2000, an upward trend was recorded in the growth rate of retail sales peaking at x% at the end of the observed period. Having reached a low towards the end of January 1999, retail sales started rising in February, slipped back in March and remained stable at X% throughout April. A sharp increase to X% is visible in early May followed by an abrupt drop to X% in June. Retail sales climbed back to X% in July. They went up mildly in August and continued rising in September.

17 1.Italics: intensity/speed (How fast/intensive is the change?) 2.Underlined – time adverbials (When?) 3.Red - trend (up/down?, changed direction?) 4.Blue – prepositions  In the period between Feb 1999 and Jan 2000, an upward trend was recorded in the growth rate of retail sales peaking at x% at the end of the observed period. Having reached a low towards the end of January 1999, retail sales started rising in February, slipped back in March and remained stable at X% throughout April. A sharp increase to X% is visible in early May followed by an abrupt drop to X% in June. Retail sales climbed back to X% in July. They went up mildly in August and continued rising in September….


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