Presentation on theme: "Abnormal Psychology in a Changing World SEVENTH EDITION Jeffrey S. Nevid / Spencer A. Rathus / Beverly Greene Chapter 2 (Pp 60-67) Contemporary Perspectives."— Presentation transcript:
Abnormal Psychology in a Changing World SEVENTH EDITION Jeffrey S. Nevid / Spencer A. Rathus / Beverly Greene Chapter 2 (Pp 60-67) Contemporary Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior
Ethnicity and Mental Health A recent analysis of ethnic group differences in rates of mental disorders revealed an interesting pattern. Using data from a nationally representative sample of adult Americans, investigators found that traditionally disadvantaged groups (non-Hispanic Black Americans and Hispanic Americans) had either significantly lower rates of psychological disorders or comparable rates, as compared to European Americans (non- Hispanic Whites).
Ethnicity and psychological disorders in the United States
Cultural Relativism* The view that abnormal behaviors can only be understood within the cultural framework within which they occur (though universal components still exist across cultures) *Culture and Psychology
Culture Bound Syndromes* Disorders that appear to occur only in specific cultural milieus *Culture and Psychology
Culture Bound Syndromes * 1. Sinbyonga. Algonquin Indians 2. Amokb. Latin America 3. Witikoc. Ethiopian immigrants 4. Anorexia nervosad. Korea 5. Ataque de nerviose. Tonga 6. Zarf. Southeast Asian men 7. Whakamag. Malaysia 8. Avangah. New Zealand 9. Koroi. Europe/North America *Culture and Psychology
Culture Bound Syndromes* 1. Sinbyonga. Man-eating monster 2. Amokb. Mutism 3. Witikoc. Companionship with a spirit 4. Anorexia nervosad. Feelings of inferiority 5. Ataque de nerviose. Hallucinations 6. Zarf. Uncontrollable shouting 7. Whakamag. Fear of shrinkage 8. Avangah. Rage and homicidal aggression 9. Koroi. Fear of becoming fat *Culture and Psychology
Evaluating the Sociocultural Perspective Social causation model - The belief that social stressors, such as poverty, account for the greater risk of severe psychological disorders among people of lower socioeconomic status. Downward drift hypothesis - The theory that explains the linkage between low socioeconomic status and behavior problems by suggesting that problem behaviors lead people to drift downward in social status.
THE BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL PERSPECTIVE The biopsychosocial perspective examines the contributions of multiple factors representing biological, psychological, and sociocultural domains, as well as their interactions, in the development psychological disorders. Even disorders that are primarily biological may be influenced by psychological factors, or vice-versa. For example, some phobias may be learned behaviors that are acquired through experiences in which particular objects became associated with traumatic or painful experiences.
THE BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL MODEL OF BULIMIA Biological Factors Genetics Irregularities in neurotransmitters Psychological Factors Body dissatisfaction Cognitive distortions (perfectionism) Emotional/interpersonal issues Sociocultural Factors Social pressures to be thin
The Diathesis–Stress Model Diathesis–stress model - A model that posits that abnormal behavior problems involve the interaction of a vulnerability or predisposition and stressful life events or experiences. Diathesis - A vulnerability or predisposition to a particular disorder. In some cases, people with a diathesis for a particular disorder, say schizophrenia, will remain free of the disorder or will develop a milder form of the disorder if the level of stress in their lives remains low or if they develop effective coping responses for handling the stress they encounter.