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Falling Balls 1 Falling Balls

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Falling Balls 2 Introductory Question Suppose I throw a ball upward into the air. After the ball leaves my hand, is there any force pushing the ball upward? Suppose I throw a ball upward into the air. After the ball leaves my hand, is there any force pushing the ball upward? A. Yes B. No

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Falling Balls 3 Observations about Falling Balls When you drop a ball, it When you drop a ball, it begins at rest, but acquires downward speed begins at rest, but acquires downward speed covers more and more distance each second covers more and more distance each second When you tossed a ball straight up, it When you tossed a ball straight up, it rises to a certain height rises to a certain height comes briefly to a stop comes briefly to a stop begins to descend, much like a dropped ball begins to descend, much like a dropped ball A thrown ball travels in an arc A thrown ball travels in an arc

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Falling Balls 4 5 Questions about Falling Balls Why does a dropped ball fall downward? Why does a dropped ball fall downward? Do different balls fall at different rates? Do different balls fall at different rates? Would a ball fall differently on the moon? Would a ball fall differently on the moon? Can a ball move upward and still be falling? Can a ball move upward and still be falling? Does a ball’s horizontal motion affect its fall? Does a ball’s horizontal motion affect its fall?

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Falling Balls 5 Question 1 Why does a dropped ball fall downward? Why does a dropped ball fall downward? What is gravity doing to the ball? What is gravity doing to the ball?

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Falling Balls 6 Gravity and Weight Gravity exerts a force on the ball Gravity exerts a force on the ball That force is the ball’s weight That force is the ball’s weight Since earth’s gravity produces the ball’s weight, that weight points toward the earth’s center Since earth’s gravity produces the ball’s weight, that weight points toward the earth’s center The ball’s weight causes it to accelerate toward the earth’s center (i.e., downward) The ball’s weight causes it to accelerate toward the earth’s center (i.e., downward)

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Falling Balls 7 Question 2 Do different balls fall at different rates? Do different balls fall at different rates? If different balls have different weights and different masses, is there any relationship between their accelerations as they fall? If different balls have different weights and different masses, is there any relationship between their accelerations as they fall?

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Falling Balls 8 Weight and Mass A ball’s weight is proportional to its mass A ball’s weight is proportional to its mass weight/mass = constant On earth’s surface, On earth’s surface, weight/mass = 9.8 newtons/kilogram is the same for all balls (or other objects) is the same for all balls (or other objects) is called “acceleration due to gravity” is called “acceleration due to gravity”

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Falling Balls 9 Acceleration Due to Gravity Why this strange name? Why this strange name? weight/mass → force/mass = acceleration Acceleration due to gravity is an acceleration! Acceleration due to gravity is an acceleration! 9.8 newtons/kilogram = 9.8 meter/second 2 On earth’s surface, all falling balls accelerate downward at 9.8 meter/second 2 On earth’s surface, all falling balls accelerate downward at 9.8 meter/second 2 Different balls fall at the same rate! Different balls fall at the same rate!

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Falling Balls 10 Question 3 Would a ball fall differently on the moon? Would a ball fall differently on the moon? Yes! Yes! Moon’s acceleration due to gravity is different! Moon’s acceleration due to gravity is different!

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Falling Balls 11 Question 4 Can a ball move upward and still be falling? Can a ball move upward and still be falling? How does falling affect a ball’s How does falling affect a ball’s acceleration? acceleration? velocity? velocity? position? position?

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Falling Balls 12 A Falling Ball (Part 1) A falling ball accelerates downward steadily A falling ball accelerates downward steadily Its acceleration is constant and downward Its acceleration is constant and downward Its velocity increases in the downward direction Its velocity increases in the downward direction When falling from rest (stationary), its When falling from rest (stationary), its velocity starts at zero and increases downward velocity starts at zero and increases downward altitude decreases at an ever faster rate altitude decreases at an ever faster rate

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Falling Balls 13 Falling Downward

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Falling Balls 14 A Falling Ball (Part 2) A falling ball can start by heading upward! A falling ball can start by heading upward! Its velocity starts in the upward direction Its velocity starts in the upward direction Its velocity becomes less and less upward Its velocity becomes less and less upward Its altitude increases at an ever slower rate Its altitude increases at an ever slower rate At some point, its velocity is momentarily zero At some point, its velocity is momentarily zero Its velocity becomes more and more downward Its velocity becomes more and more downward Its altitude decreases at ever faster rate Its altitude decreases at ever faster rate

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Falling Balls 15 Falling Upward First

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Falling Balls 16 Question 5 Does a ball’s horizontal motion affect its fall? Does a ball’s horizontal motion affect its fall? Why does a thrown ball travel in an arc? Why does a thrown ball travel in an arc?

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Falling Balls 17

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Falling Balls 18

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Falling Balls 19 Throws and Arcs Gravity only affects only the ball’s vertical motion Gravity only affects only the ball’s vertical motion A ball coasts horizontally while falling vertically A ball coasts horizontally while falling vertically

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Falling Balls 20 Introductory Question (revisited) Suppose I throw a ball upward into the air. After the ball leaves my hand, is there any force pushing the ball upward? Suppose I throw a ball upward into the air. After the ball leaves my hand, is there any force pushing the ball upward? A. Yes B. No

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Falling Balls 21 Summary About Falling Balls Without gravity, a free ball would coast Without gravity, a free ball would coast With gravity, an otherwise free ball With gravity, an otherwise free ball experiences its weight, experiences its weight, accelerates downward, accelerates downward, and its velocity becomes increasingly downward and its velocity becomes increasingly downward Whether going up or down, it’s still falling Whether going up or down, it’s still falling Its horizontal coasting motion is independent of its vertical falling motion Its horizontal coasting motion is independent of its vertical falling motion

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