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Developing macroinvertebrate biological indicators of land use in Southern Ecuador Carrie Anderson Team 2: Watershed Management of the Andean Paramo Ecology.

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Presentation on theme: "Developing macroinvertebrate biological indicators of land use in Southern Ecuador Carrie Anderson Team 2: Watershed Management of the Andean Paramo Ecology."— Presentation transcript:

1 Developing macroinvertebrate biological indicators of land use in Southern Ecuador Carrie Anderson Team 2: Watershed Management of the Andean Paramo Ecology and Conservation Biology University of Idaho Supervising Faculty: Dr. Frank Wilhelm Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources University of Idaho Carlos Iñiguez A. Instituto de Ecología Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja

2 Overview Background Goals and Objectives Site Description Methods Data Analysis Support and Feasibility Timeline podocarpus-national-park-by-travelpod-member-thymeoff-vilcabamba- ecuador.html?sid= &fid=tp-15

3 Introduction Decline in surface water quality Causes of decline – Pollution – Sedimentation – Acidification – Flow regulation – Impoundment – Land use change (USEPA 2011, Pimentel et al. 1997) l ation-sedimentation.html

4 Indicators of Stream Quality Abiotic factors commonly assessed – Stream discharge – pH – Alkalinity – Electric Conductivity (EC) – Temperature – Dissolved Oxygen (DO) – Nutrient concentrations (Fleischbein et al. 2006, Bücker et al. 2010) Photo by Anderson (2010)

5 Indicators of Stream Quality Biotic factors commonly assessed – Riparian and aquatic habitat assessment – Biological indicator frameworks (Bücker et al. 2010, USEPA 2011, Grafe et al. 2002) https://www.e-education.psu.edu/geosc10/book/export/html/1733

6 Biological Indicators Predictable and consistent response Tolerance varies Occurrence / abundance correlated to changes in abiotic conditions (Bücker et al. 2010, Cain et al. 1992, Cairns et al. 1993) Photos by Fausto Fausto López

7 Biological Indicators Types of Indicators – Periphyton e-nutrient-loading-at-china-lake.html

8 Biological Indicators Types of Indicators – Periphyton – Macrophytes e-nutrient-loading-at-china-lake.html t/content/article/87-July-August-2010/61-native- aquatic-plants-plant-a-rainbow-along-your-shoreline

9 Biological Indicators Types of Indicators – Periphyton – Macrophytes – Fish e-nutrient-loading-at-china-lake.html t/content/article/87-July-August-2010/61-native- aquatic-plants-plant-a-rainbow-along-your-shoreline /

10 Biological Indicators Types of Indicators – Periphyton – Macrophytes – Fish – Benthic macroinvertebrates (Adams and Greeley 2000, USEPA 2011) e-nutrient-loading-at-china-lake.html t/content/article/87-July-August-2010/61-native- aquatic-plants-plant-a-rainbow-along-your-shoreline /

11 Biological Indices Sensitive organisms organized into indices: Photo by Fausto López

12 Biological Indices Sensitive organisms organized into indices: – Trend Biotic Index – TBI Photo by Fausto López

13 Biological Indices Sensitive organisms organized into indices: – Trend Biotic Index – TBI – Family Biotic Index – FBI Photo by Fausto López

14 Biological Indices Sensitive organisms organized into indices: – Trend Biotic Index – TBI – Family Biotic Index – FBI – Biological Monitoring Working Party – BMWP Photo by Fausto López

15 Biological Indices Sensitive organisms organized into indices: – Trend Biotic Index – TBI – Family Biotic Index – FBI – Biological Monitoring Working Party – BMWP – Ephemeroptera Plecoptera Trichoptera Index – EPT (Bücker et al. 2010, Grafe et al. 2002) Photo by Fausto López

16 EPT Index Commonly used for stream quality assessment Widely transferable Evaluates number of distinct EPT taxa – Particularly sensitive to pollution – Changes in occurrence correlated with concentration of pollutants (USEPA 2002, Johnson et al. 1993) 25/water/aquatic/pages/03_jpg.htm 0q?search=Perlodidae %20Key/English/Hydropsychidae.htm

17 Background Indicator frameworks in developed countries Implementation in developing countries? (Resh 1995, Bücker et al ) podocarpus-national-park-by-travelpod-member-thymeoff-vilcabamba- ecuador.html?sid= &fid=tp-15

18 Background Stream Quality in Ecuador – Focus on high elevation stream networks Importance to the local people Headwaters in the Paramo Ecosystem (Bücker et al. 2010, Buytaert et al. 2006)

19 Background Stream Quality in Ecuador – Focus on high elevation stream networks Importance to the local people Headwaters in the Paramo Ecosystem (Bücker et al. 2010, Buytaert et al. 2006)

20 Background Stream Quality in Ecuador – Focus on high elevation stream networks Importance to the local people Headwaters in the Paramo Ecosystem (Bücker et al. 2010, Buytaert et al. 2006)

21 Background Need for stream quality monitoring methods Bioindicator framework in Ecuador lacking (Bücker et al. 2010) Photo by Fausto López

22 Objectives Goal: To contribute to the assessment of stream quality for high elevation systems of southern Ecuador

23 Objectives Goal: To contribute to the assessment of stream quality for high elevation systems of southern Ecuador Objectives: –Relate biotic and abiotic parameters and connect this relationship to land-use and catchment characteristics

24 Objectives – Determine if a group of aquatic invertebrates exist that are indicative of land use and differences in stream habitat and water quality Goal: To contribute to the assessment of stream quality for high elevation systems of southern Ecuador Objectives: –Relate biotic and abiotic parameters and connect this relationship to land-use and catchment characteristics

25 Objectives – Examine if a bioindicator approach is applicable in the Ecuadorian Andes using end member systems along a disturbance gradient – Determine if a group of aquatic invertebrates exist that are indicative of land use and differences in stream habitat and water quality Goal: To contribute to the assessment of stream quality for high elevation systems of southern Ecuador Objectives: –Relate biotic and abiotic parameters and connect this relationship to land-use and catchment characteristics

26 Hypotheses H 0 1 : – There is no relationship between macroinvertebrates and land use in high elevation montane tropical streams in the Andes Mountains of southern Ecuador

27 Hypotheses H 0 1 : – There is no relationship between macroinvertebrates and land use in high elevation montane tropical streams in the Andes Mountains of southern Ecuador H 0 2: – No difference in macroinvertebrate taxa occurrence, richness, evenness, and diversity between disturbed and undisturbed

28 Hypotheses H 0 1 : – There is no relationship between macroinvertebrates and land use in high elevation montane tropical streams in the Andes Mountains of southern Ecuador H 0 3: – No difference in abundance of EPT taxa between disturbed and undisturbed sites H 0 2: – No difference in macroinvertebrate taxa occurrence, richness, evenness, and diversity between disturbed and undisturbed

29 Site Description dorprojecturban.htm the-hecuador-is-ecuador-anyway/

30 Potential Study Sites

31 Pilot Study i) Optimize sampling time per sample ii) Determine number of samples  given between-sample variance Photo by Fausto López

32 Pilot Study i) Optimize sampling time – Triplicate samples for 15 sec, 30 sec, 1 min, 2 min – Total abundance determined in the field (Krebbs 1999, Gordon et al. 1992)

33 Pilot Study ii) Number of Samples per reach – Cumulative variance plotted versus number of samples (Krebb 1999, London and Gertz 1994)

34 ControlImpact Field Methods Optimal design At least 2 catchments – Impact – Control 4 reaches sampled

35 Field Methods Reach Characteristics – Width – Depth – Velocity – Discharge (Hauer and Lamberti 1996) Photo by Carlos Iñiguez A.

36 Field Methods Abiotic Characteristics – Temperature – pH – Dissolved Oxygen (DO) (Hauer and Lamberti 1996) Sampled using a YSI 556 Multiprobe multiparameter-system

37 Sampling Methods Hess sampler or D-Net – Quantitative known area Sample time determined in Pilot Study (Hauer and Lamberti 1996) Net_s_224916/Nets_ /?isredirect=true Photo by Carlos Iñiguez A.

38 Sampling Methods Number of samples per stream reach Randomized Sampling Method Preserve samples in field using 70% ethanol – Return to laboratory setting for sample analysis (Hauer and Lamberti 1996, Grafe et al. 2002)

39 Laboratory Methods Randomized subsample from each field sample Classify to lowest taxonomic level Transport unprocessed samples back to US for further analysis – Permits acquired in Ecuador (Hauer and Lamberti 1996, Grafe et al. 2002, Gordon 1992) Photo by Carlos Iñiguez A.

40 Data Analysis Biological Indices Abundance

41 Data Analysis Biological Indices Abundance Richness

42 Data Analysis Biological Indices Abundance Richness % EPT %EPT = (E + P + T) x 100 total abundance

43 Data Analysis Biological Indices Abundance Richness % EPT Diversity – Shannon – Wiener Index Shannon – Wiener Index H’ = - Σp i log p i %EPT = (E + P + T) x 100 total abundance

44 Data Analysis Biological Indices Abundance Richness % EPT Diversity – Shannon – Wiener Index Evenness – Simpson Index (Krebs 1999, Hauer and Lamberti 1996, Brooks et al. 2003) Shannon – Wiener Index H’ = - Σp i log p i Simpson Index C = Σ i p i 2 %EPT = (E + P + T) x 100 total abundance

45 Data Analysis Statistical Analysis Basic descriptive statistics – Mean – Standard Deviation – Variance (Gordon 1992, London and Gertz 1984) Photo by Fausto López ecuador.html?sid= &fid=tp-15

46 Data Analysis Statistical Analysis Basic descriptive statistics – Mean – Standard Deviation – Variance (Gordon 1992, London and Gertz 1984) Inferential Statistics – ANOVA – Regression – Correlation (Gordon 1992, London and Gertz 1984, O’Brien 1979) Photo by Fausto López ecuador.html?sid= &fid=tp-15

47 Data Analysis Statistical Analysis Basic descriptive statistics – Mean – Standard Deviation – Variance (Gordon 1992, London and Gertz 1984) Inferential Statistics – ANOVA – Regression – Correlation (Gordon 1992, London and Gertz 1984, O’Brien 1979) Multivariate Statistics – Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA ) (Bücker et al. 2010, Braak and Verdonschot, 1995) Photo by Fausto López ecuador.html?sid= &fid=tp-15

48 Support and Feasibility Grant Provided by the National Science Foundation (NSF) Dr. Frank Wilhelm – University of Idaho Carlos Iniguez A. – Doctoral Candidate at UTPL Adrian Leiva – Carlos’ associate/ invertebrate taxonomist

49 Ecuador Summer Research Program University of Idaho Universidad Tecnica Particular de Loja Project 1: Cultural perspectives on high Andean watersheds Amy Forsgren Project 3: Evaluating the jurisdictional map of authority over watershed decisions Danie Merriman Project 4: Evaluating the physical impact of land use Emily Shimada Project 5: Evaluating the biotic impacts of land use Carrie Anderson Team 2: Watershed management of the Andean páramo

50 Timeline May 17, 2011Depart from Spokane, WA and arrive in Ecuador May , 2011Orientation in Ecuador May 25 – July 17, 2011Field sampling and laboratory analysis July 21, 2011Return to the United States Aug. – Dec. 2011Data analysis Jan.– April 2012Compose completion report and design poster April 2012Present Results

51 Summary Decline in surface water quality in Ecuador Current monitoring of aquatic systems Contribute to the development of biological indicator framework i /mark-jones-paramo-del-angel-freilejon- northern-andes-ecuador.htm

52 References Beck, E., & Müller-Hohenstein, K. (2001). Analysis of undisturbed and disturbed tropical mountain forest ecosystems in Southern Ecuador. Die Erde, vol. 132: 1-8. Braak, C.J., Verdonschot, P.F Canonical correspondence analysis and related multivariate methods in aquatic ecology. Aquatic Sciences. 57: Brooks et al.. (2003). Hydrology and the Management of Watersheds. Ames: Iowa State Press, a Blackwell Publishing Company. Bücker et al.. (2010). The influence of land-use on macroinvertebrate communities in montane tropical streams - a case study from Ecuador. Fundam. Appl. Limnol., Vol. 177/4, Cain, D., Luoma, S., Carter, J., & Fend, S. (1992). Aquatic Insects as Bioindicators of Trace ELement Contamination in Cobble-Bottom Rivers and Streams. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 49: Digby, P.G., Kempton, R.A Multivariate Analysis of Ecological Communities. Chapman and Hall. London and New York. Fleischbein, K., Wilcke, W., Valerezo, C., Zech, W., & Knoblich, K. (2006). Water budgets of three small catchments under montane forest in Ecuador: experimental and modelling approach. Hydrological Processes, vol Gordon, N.D., McMahon, T.A., Finlayson, B.L.. Stream Hydrology: An Introduction for Ecologists Jon Wiley & Sons. Chichester, New York. Grafe et al. (2002). The Idaho department of Environmental Quality Water Body Assessment Guidance, Second Edition-Final. Boise: Idaho department of Environmental Quality. Hauer, H.F., Lamberti G.A., Methods in Stream Ecology. Academic Press. San Diego. Hellawell, J.M Biological Indicators of Freshwater Pollution and Enviornmental Management. Elsevier, New York.

53 Johnson, R.K., Wiederholm, T., Rosenberg, D. M Freshwater biomonitoring using individual organisms, populations, and species assemblages of benthic macroinvertebrates. Freshwater Biomonitoring and Benthic Macroinvertebrates. 40 – 158. Krebs, J.C Ecological Methodology. Addison- Welsey Educational Publishers, Inc. Menlo Park, California. London & Gertz (editors) Statistics in the Environmental Sciences. ASTM. Philadelphia. Metcalfe, J.L Biological water quality assessment of running waters based on macroinvertebrate communities: Hisotry and present states in Europe. Environmental Pollution 60: 101 – 139. Phillips, D.J Qquantitative Aquatic Biological Indicators: Their Use to Monitor Trace Metal and Organochlorine Pollution. Applied Science Publishers LTD. London. Plafkin, J.L., Barbour, M.T., Porter, K.D., Gross, S.K., Hughes, R.M Rapid Bioassessment Protocols for Use in streams and Rivers. Benthic Macroinvertebrates and Fish. EPA/444/4-89/0001. Office of Water Regulations and Standards, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Resh, V.H Freshwater benthic macroinvertebrates and rapid assessment procedures for water quality monitoring in developing and newly industrialized countries. Pages 167 – 177 in W.S. Davis and T.P Simon. Biological Assessment and Criteria. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, Florida. US - EPA. (2011, January 31). Biological Indicators of Watershed Health. Retrieved February 20, 2001, from U.S. Enviornmental Protection Agency: US - EPA. (2002). Water Quality Standards Attainment Decisions. US - EPA. USEPA. (2010, October 13). Volunteer Monitoring. Retrieved April 15, 2011, from United States Environmental Protection Agency: Wetzel, R. (2001). Limnology: Lake and River Ecosystems. 3rd edition. New York: Academic Press. Wilhelm. (2009). Pollution of Aquatic Ecosystems 1. Encyclopedia of Inland Waters, vol. 3:

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