Presentation on theme: "1 Principles for hygienic design and zoning Quality and Safety Issues in Fish Handling ----- A course in quality and safety management in fishery harbours."— Presentation transcript:
1 Principles for hygienic design and zoning Quality and Safety Issues in Fish Handling A course in quality and safety management in fishery harbours in Sri Lanka NARA, DFAR, ICEIDA and UNU-FTP Icelandic International Development Agency (ICEIDA) Iceland United Nations University Fisheries Training Programme (UNU-FTP) Iceland National Aquatic Resources Research and Development Agency (NARA) Sri Lanka Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (DFAR) Sri Lanka
2 Content Sources of contamination Hygienic design – key criteria Zoning of harbour
3 Learning Objectives After this lecture participants will be familiar with: how seafood can be contaminated how the hygienic design criteria and zoning can reduce the contamination during handling requirements for different zones
4 Increased pressure on fish handlers regarding hygiene : "New" hygienic problems (e.g. bacteria, viruses) More demanding specifications from buyers Increased interest in further processing of foods and in chilled products Consumption of raw or minimally processed seafood e.g. Sushi, sashimi, cold smoked fish
5 Origin of bacteria in seafood - environmental routes surface directly via product’s contact surfaces e.g. pallets, tables knives indirectly via other routes e.g. drains, floors, pier people and animals (dogs, cats, crows) water – harbour seawater air sewage from toilet waste fish waste, blood water, trash fish “Cleaning” fish with harbour water
6 Basic problems in handling and processing fish: high number of bacteria and/or presence of pathogenic bacteria or indicators thereof
7 Bacterial load in fish (Ganegamarachchi, et al 2004)
8 A home of pathogenic bacteria
9 Hygienic design of food handling/processing facilities and equipment Three major benefits to food manufacturers maintains product in the main product flow - Quality prevents contamination of the product with substances that would adversely affect the health of consumer - Safety reduces time required for an item of equipment to be cleaned - Efficiency
10 Basic hygienic design requirement 1.Materials for construction 2.Surface finishes 3.Joints 4.Fasteners 5.Internal angels and corners
12 Basic hygienic design requirements (cont.) 6.Drainage 7.Bearings and shaft seals 8.Instrumentation 9.Doors, covers and panels 10.Controls 11.Dead spaces
13 Hygienic Hygienic design? Good or bad?
14 Most common materials used for construction in the food industry Stainless steel –AISI-304, AISI-316 and AISI 316L Plastics –polypropylene (PP), polyvinyl chloride unplasticised (PVC), Acetal copolymer, polycarbonate (PC), high density polyethylene (PE) Elastomer –ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM), nitrile rubber, nitrile/butyl rubber (NBR), Silicone rubber, fluororelastomer (Viton) Lubricants –food grade
15 Use of wood??????? Use of wood is only acceptable when: it plays a favourable role e.g. cheese ripening, wine and vinegar production its mechanical properties cannot be obtained with other available materials e.g. butcher's block Splinters can result in foreign body contamination Wood cutting tabletable Wooden surfaces must be cleaned effectively and disinfected because they can retain microorganisms which can grow in the presence of nutrients
16 Break up of processing areas - Zoning In a fish handling environment there are various demands regarding cleanliness in each area hygienic requirements low risk area and high risk area traffic of people and vehicles The areas must be separated according to these demands
17 Harbour activity
18 Zoning for prevention Keeping away unwanted items, animals and people from the product contact point is a major step towards prevention of food hygiene problems…………….
19 Zoning of harbour Different zone are: 1.Pier - unloading area 2.Auction hall 3.Loading area for buyers 4.Loading of provisions to boats 5.Cleaning of boats 6.Other facilities 1.toilets, canteens, offices, fuel sheds, 2.parking areas, 3.ice-plants 4.net-maintenance 5.waste treatment/disposal 6.repair areas 7.more? high hygienic demands Most important zoning will be ineffective without coaching and correct attitudes
20 Zoning for prevention ………must remain realistic and affordable What is to be prevented? What are the contamination sources of concern? What services are necessary?
21 What is wrong in this picture?????
22 Requirement for the pier – unloading area Good access and easy to clean Restrict unnecessary traffic No direct landing of fish on the pier access to boxes, plastic baskets and pallets land directly into boxes or baskets and then onto pallets in the auction hall Easy access to potable water
23 Requirement for auction halls Easy access to potable water Access to ice made from potable water Washing table/basin for the fish Cleaning facility – cleaning programme – high pressure equipment (20-70bar) Waste bins Cutting table
24 Requirement for auction halls Floors should be made of waterproof materials that are easy to clean and disinfect concrete ceramic tiles seamless resin screeds ( heavy duty, self-levelling and coatings) Water must drain away easily slight slope towards the drain (1 in 40 or 1 in 60) Hygienic drainage system for waste water is an absolute necessity durable and easy to clean material should be as straight as possible
25 Channels and aperture channel drain design
26 Auction hall Auction hall to close to pier Wrong use of auction hall
27 Requirement for other areas Toilets high standard to ensure maximum lifetime, properly maintained with adequate water supply to flush never open to a work area where fish is being handled due to risk of flooding from blocked drains wrong use of toilettoilet Wash hand basins adequate number in each toilet block hand - or foot -operated faucets and soap available at all time
28 Requirement for other areas (cont.) Showers the importance of showers in a hot climate should not be underestimated Signs and bill boards listing food hygiene regulation for the harbour area prohibition of dumping spillage into the harbour basin prohibition of using seawater from harbour basin indication of directions e.g. to toilets
29 Requirement for other areas (cont) Ice-plant Ice made from potable water Cleaning programme Restrict traffic Protective clothing Canteen Hygienic requirement Restroom Hygienic requirement Fuel shed Repair/ maintenance area
30 Ideal arrangement for the fish harbour Ref: Ice in fisheries. FAO fisheries technical paper no. 331 (1992) unloading Loading Auction hall
31 References Marriott, G. M.(1997). Essentials of food sanitation. Chapman and Hall. New York and London Training material from UNU-FTP/Icelandic Fisheries Laboratories Guide to Hygiene within the Fish Industry (2000). Eastfish - Fachpresse Verlag, Michael Steinert, An der Alster 21, D-20099, Hamburg EHEDG (European Hygienic Engineering & Design Group) document 8 – Hygienic equipment design criteria, second edition 2004 document 13 – Hygienic design of equipment for open processing, 1996 Edt. H.L.M. Lelieveld, M.A. Mostert, J. Holah and B. White (2003) Hygiene in food processing:. Wood Head Publishing Limited. Cambridge, England.
32 References Ice in fisheries. FAO fisheries technical paper no. 331 (1992) Fishery Harbour Manual on the Prevention of Pollution – Bay of Bengal Programme. FAO report, BOBP/MAG/22, 1999 Ganegama Arachchi, G.J. Kariyawasam, M.G.I.U., Heenatigala, P.P.M. Ariyaratne, T. Dahanayeka, T. and Jayasinghe, J.M.P.K. (2004) An investigation on the quality and handling practices of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) along the main commercial distribution channels of Beruwala fishery harbour. Sri Lanka J. Aquat. Sci. 9: