Presentation on theme: "Principles for hygienic design and zoning"— Presentation transcript:
1 Principles for hygienic design and zoning Quality and Safety Issues in Fish Handling-----A course in quality and safety management infishery harbours in Sri LankaNARA, DFAR, ICEIDA and UNU-FTPDelivering time 75 minutesIcelandic International Development Agency (ICEIDA)IcelandUnited Nations University Fisheries Training Programme (UNU-FTP)National Aquatic Resources Research and Development Agency (NARA)Sri LankaDepartment of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (DFAR)
2 Content Sources of contamination Hygienic design – key criteria Zoning of harbourTalk to slideLearning objective :After this lecture participants will- Be able to explain common sources of seafood contamination from facilities- Be able to understand hygiene design criteria for seafood handling/processing areas and the role of zoning to ensure food safety and quality
3 Learning ObjectivesAfter this lecture participants will be familiar with:how seafood can be contaminatedhow the hygienic design criteria and zoning can reduce the contamination during handlingrequirements for different zones
4 Increased pressure on fish handlers regarding hygiene: "New" hygienic problems (e.g. bacteria, viruses)More demanding specifications from buyersIncreased interest in further processing of foods and in chilled productsConsumption of raw or minimally processed seafood e.g. Sushi, sashimi, cold smoked fishHygienic procedures are a very important part of daily operations in seafood producing establishments. For many food industries cleaning and sanitation operations have become more and more important part of the daily work. Results indicate that this has led to lower numbers of bacteria in the products.At the same time there has been increased pressure on the producers regarding hygiene and this slide describes 3 very important reasons:"New" hygienic problems (e.g. bacteria, viruses)More demanding specification from buyersIncreased interest in further processing of foods and in chilled productsDiscuss these facts – E.coli and Salmonella from the harbour, histamine in Tuna fish, chemical contamination form harbour waterBuyers do more specific and stringent requirement then the authority state in laws and regulation. Different markets like EU and USA can even have different kind of demands.All stakeholders needs to know about all relevant public health regulation and what is also very important is that consumers are more and more aware that food, including fish and seafood should be nutritious, wholesome and processed under sanitary conditions.The consumption pattern is also very important and it is always changing like the consumer like to have more RTE – food which do not need long preparation time (cooking etc. ) before eating. And the consumer like also to have it fresh with a long storage time.
5 Origin of bacteria in seafood - environmental routes surfacedirectly via product’s contact surfacese.g. pallets, tables knivesindirectly via other routese.g. drains, floors, pierpeople and animals (dogs, cats, crows)water – harbour seawaterairsewage from toilet wastefish waste, blood water,trash fish“Cleaning” fish with harbour waterThe environment around a seafood plant can contaminate the plant and its products.Ask participiants if they know about the origin of bacteria in seafoodFollow slide to give exampleSeafood involves many different types and some types are more likely to be contaminated than others.Molluscs ( e.g. mussels) are more likely to be contaminated than crustaceans (e.g. shrimp) and finfish.The raw product can be contaminated, especially if it is not harvested properly and the boat or truck that carries it is not clean.Worker can contaminate seafood, especially through poor hygiene. Also processing equipment, boxes, pallets, tools, walls, floors, utensils, supplies, and pests can contaminate seafood. The most serious problem is when microbes contaminate ready-to eat food. Therefore workers must carefully clean and disinfect all equipment.Raw untreated sewage can carry microorganisms causing many kind of diseases e.g. typhoid and paratyphoid fever. Faulty plumping can cause contamination. If raw sewage drains or flows into drinking water lines, wells, rivers, harbour seawater then seafood will be contaminated.Separation is therefore of most important
6 Basic problems in handling and processing fish: high number of bacteria and/orpresence of pathogenic bacteria or indicators thereofHigh numbers of bacteria can be caused by many different factors. It is assumed that the flesh of living fish is free of micro-organisms but the skin and gut is not. Soon after death, bacteria start to penetrate the flesh.Therefore high number of bacteria in the fish flesh can indicate that the fish has been stored long enough for the bacteria to penetrate the skin. With normal iced storage (less then 5 days) this is not the reason for too high bacterial counts in the flesh.The conditions in seafood are suitable shelter for growing of microorganisms because of high water, slack muscles, high nutrition. These are difficulties which we meet in seafood processing.
7 Bacterial load in fish (Ganegamarachchi, et al 2004) Variation of aerobic plate count of skipjack tuna in multi-day boat, at pier, in vehicle, at stall and at retailed stage along the two distribution channels, Matugama and Horana(Ganegamarachchi, et al 2004)
8 A home of pathogenic bacteria Talk to slide and point out the hiding places of bacteriaMost common sites are drains, dirty boxes, vehicles (wheels), ground etc
9 Hygienic design of food handling/processing facilities and equipment Three major benefits to food manufacturersmaintains product in the main product flow - Qualityprevents contamination of the product with substances that would adversely affect the health of consumer - Safetyreduces time required for an item of equipment to be cleaned - EfficiencyThis slide shows the benefits from hygienic design principles to ensure hygiene in food processing.Hygienic design provides three major benefits – Quality, Safety and Efficiency.A well designed establishment/facility help make the sanitation program work better and more efficiently.
10 Basic hygienic design requirement Materials for constructionSurface finishesJointsFastenersInternal angels and cornersIn principle, the design of equipment and the environmental conditions must not allow any increases in concentration of relevant microorganisms.Food contact area include all surfaces that are directly exposed to the product and all indirect surfaces from which splashed product, condensate, liquid or dust may drain, drop or be drawn into the product. This means that for hygienic design of product contact areas of equipment for open processing the area above the open product surface must also be taken into considerationPoint out the basic hygienic requirement from the slide.Right choise of material is very important.On the market today it is possible to find material for almost everything. Plastic is e.g. produced with narrow application range. This is good in many ways but the choice is getting more and more difficulty for the producer of the equipment because they has to know exactly about all circumstances in place where the material are used. Stainless steel can be different according to corrosion.
11 Stainless steel –AISI 304:2B untreated (RA:0,16-0,17)polished (RA:0,16-0,22)glassbeaded (RA: 0,7-0,8)5015050This picture show different roughness of stainless steel-surfaces. All of them appear to be very smooth to the naked eye.RA value is indicating the surface roughness. Product contact surfaces should have a finish of an acceptable Ra value and be free of imperfections such as pits, folds and crevices. For large surface area product contact surface should have a surface surface finish of 0,8μm Ra or better (EHEDG doc 8). A roughness of more then 0,8 μm may be acceptable if test results have shown that the required cleanability is achieved because of other design features.23
12 Basic hygienic design requirements (cont.) DrainageBearings and shaft sealsInstrumentationDoors, covers and panelsControlsDead spacesPoint out that pipelines should not have dead ends where moisture and bacteria can hide – no dead legsBearing should wherever possible be mounted outside product area to avoid possible contamination of product by lubricants or possible failure of the bearing due to ingress of the product. Lubricant must be edible.It is very important that all parts of equipments can drain e.g. pumps.Doors, covers and panels should be designed so that they prevent the entry and / or accumulation of soil. Where appropriate they should be sloped to an outside
14 Most common materials used for construction in the food industry Stainless steelAISI-304, AISI-316 and AISI 316LPlasticspolypropylene (PP), polyvinyl chloride unplasticised (PVC), Acetal copolymer, polycarbonate (PC), high density polyethylene (PE)Elastomerethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM), nitrile rubber, nitrile/butyl rubber (NBR), Silicone rubber, fluororelastomer (Viton)Lubricantsfood gradeMaterial used for food contact must be: (EHEDG doc. 8)inert to the product under operating conditionse.g. temperature, pressure, detergents, disinfectantsbe durable and with a reasonable lifetimecorrosion resistantbe non-toxic, non-tainting and non-absorbentmechanically stableresistant to cracking, chipping, flaking, corrosion and abrasionprevent penetration of unwanted matter under intended usebe easily cleaned and capable of being shapedsmooth and cleanableMaterial used for non-food contact surfacemust be easily cleanable and resistant to the product and to cleaning and disinfecting agentsif components are coated then the coating must be non-toxic and resistant to cracking, chipping and flakinginsulation must be vapour tight to avoid growth of microorganisms
15 Use of wood??????? Use of wood is only acceptable when: it plays a favourable role e.g. cheese ripening, wine and vinegar productionits mechanical properties cannot be obtained with other available materials e.g. butcher's blockSplinters can result in foreign body contaminationWood cutting tableFollow slide and point out the importance of cleaning wood board and specially to let it dry in between usage.Wooden surfaces must becleaned effectively and disinfectedbecause they can retainmicroorganisms which can growin the presence of nutrients
16 Break up of processing areas - Zoning In a fish handling environment there are various demands regarding cleanliness in each areahygienic requirementslow risk area and high risk areatraffic of people and vehiclesThe areas must be separated according to these demandsBreak up of processing areas is many times necessary, because in may cases there are different risks in each are according to the nature of the processing.In fish factories there are various demands regarding cleanness in each area and the areas must be separated according to these demands. It is important to avoid pollution between these areas.Especially the shrimp processing industry makes a very high demands in that politic. There are examples that people have to change close totally before crossing different areas.For the harbours zoning can be very useful to ensure the qaulity and safety of the fish.
18 Zoning for preventionKeeping away unwanted items, animals and people from the product contact point is a major step towards prevention of food hygiene problems…………….Zoning suggests divisions and limitations for area with well-defined use. It is part of total concept to prevent product contamination. Zoning implies knowledge of product, process and preventive measures……..
19 Zoning of harbour Different zone are: Pier - unloading area high hygienic demandsDifferent zone are:Pier - unloading areaAuction hallLoading area for buyersLoading of provisions to boatsCleaning of boatsOther facilitiestoilets, canteens, offices, fuel sheds,parking areas,ice-plantsnet-maintenancewaste treatment/disposalrepair areasmore?Most importantzoning will beineffectivewithout coachingand correctattitudesFollow slideAsk participants if they have some idea of another zoning e.g. special landing site, special cleaning site (for the boats), special storage of boats3 different sites at the pier.
20 Zoning for prevention ………must remain realistic and affordable What is to be prevented?What are the contamination sources of concern?What services are necessary?Follow slide and ask participant these questions.Write comments and answers down and discuss
21 What is wrong in this picture????? Follow slide and ask participants about this pictureCar on the pier, oil can leek form the car.fish direct on the pier without any pallets
22 Requirement for the pier – unloading area Good access and easy to cleanRestrict unnecessary trafficNo direct landing of fish on the pieraccess to boxes, plastic baskets and palletsland directly into boxes or baskets and then onto pallets in the auction hallEasy access to potable waterpoint 2 - unless for fisherman, provisions and landingWhat else????
23 Requirement for auction halls Easy access to potable waterAccess to ice made from potable waterWashing table/basin for the fishCleaning facility – cleaning programme – high pressure equipment (20-70bar)Waste binsCutting tableFollow slideWhat else?
24 Requirement for auction halls Floors should be made of waterproof materials that are easy to clean and disinfectconcreteceramic tilesseamless resin screeds ( heavy duty, self-levelling and coatings)Water must drain away easilyslight slope towards the drain (1 in 40 or 1 in 60)Hygienic drainage system for waste water is an absolute necessitydurable and easy to clean materialshould be as straight as possibleFollow slideResin-based floorHeavy duty – 5-12mm – heavily filled trowel applied, high strength and normally slip resistantSelf-levelling – 2-5 mm – poured and floated – smooth glossy surfaceCoating – mm – poor durability – often linked to microbial contaminationExamples – epoxy ( limited resistance to very high concentration of sodium hypochlorite) polyester and furan more resistant to chemical attack
25 Channels and aperture channel drain design The type of drain used depends to a great extent upon the process operation involved.For operations involving a considerable amount of water and solids, channel drains are often the most suitable.For operation generating volumes of water but with little solids, aperture channel drains are more favorable.Profile of aperture channel drains is such that all internal surfaces can be easily cleaned.In mostcases, channels should have a fall of at least 1 in 100, have round bottoms and not to be deeper than 150mmm for ease of cleaning. They must be provided with gratings for safety reasons. The channel gratings must be easily removable, with wide aperutres ( 20 mm minimum) to allow solids to enter the drain.
26 Auction hall to close to pier Wrong use of auction hall
27 Requirement for other areas Toiletshigh standard to ensure maximum lifetime,properly maintained with adequate water supply to flushnever open to a work area where fish is being handled due to risk of flooding from blocked drainswrong use of toiletWash hand basinsadequate number in each toilet blockhand - or foot -operated faucets and soap available at all timeFollow slide and discuss the pointsWhat else should be mentioned???
28 Requirement for other areas (cont.) Showersthe importance of showers in a hot climate should not be underestimatedSigns and bill boardslisting food hygiene regulation for the harbour areaprohibition of dumping spillage into the harbour basinprohibition of using seawater from harbour basinindication of directions e.g. to toiletsFollow slide and discuss the pointsWhat else should be mentioned???
29 Requirement for other areas (cont) Ice-plantIce made from potable waterCleaning programmeRestrict trafficProtective clothingCanteenHygienic requirementRestroomFuel shedRepair/ maintenance areaFollow slide and discuss the pointsWhat else should be mentioned???
30 Ideal arrangement for the fish harbour LoadingunloadingAuction hallDiscuss this picture with participantsThe picture shows three main and most important zone in the harbour area.Unloading area – just to unload the fish and to upload provisionAuction area – just to sell fish and all fish should be sold through the auction hall. Not allowed to sell it from the pier.Loading area – for the buyers to transport the fish.Refer to previous slides and ask participants what kind of activity should be at each zone.Ref: Ice in fisheries. FAO fisheries technical paper no. 331 (1992)
31 ReferencesMarriott, G. M.(1997). Essentials of food sanitation. Chapman and Hall. New York and LondonTraining material from UNU-FTP/Icelandic Fisheries LaboratoriesGuide to Hygiene within the Fish Industry (2000). Eastfish - Fachpresse Verlag, Michael Steinert, An der Alster 21, D-20099, HamburgEHEDG (European Hygienic Engineering & Design Group)document 8 – Hygienic equipment design criteria, second edition 2004document 13 – Hygienic design of equipment for open processing, 1996Edt. H.L.M. Lelieveld, M.A. Mostert, J. Holah and B. White (2003) Hygiene in food processing:. Wood Head Publishing Limited. Cambridge, England.
32 ReferencesIce in fisheries. FAO fisheries technical paper no. 331 (1992)Fishery Harbour Manual on the Prevention of Pollution – Bay of Bengal Programme. FAO report, BOBP/MAG/22, 1999Ganegama Arachchi, G.J. Kariyawasam, M.G.I.U., Heenatigala, P.P.M. Ariyaratne, T. Dahanayeka, T. and Jayasinghe, J.M.P.K. (2004) An investigation on the quality and handling practices of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) along the main commercial distribution channels of Beruwala fishery harbour. Sri Lanka J. Aquat. Sci. 9: