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EIFAC, Sub-Commission IV, WP Recreational Fisheries

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1 EIFAC, Sub-Commission IV, WP Recreational Fisheries
A Global Code of Practice for Recreational Fisheries: an Initiative by EIFAC Robert Arlinghaus EIFAC, Sub-Commission IV, WP Recreational Fisheries Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Adaptfish-Project, Berlin, Germany Inland Fisheries Management Laboratory, Humboldt-University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany Hallo zusammen. Als erstes möchte ich mich aber erst noch mal vorstellen, für die die mich noch nicht kennen. Mein Namen ist Jan Hallermann und ich studiere an der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin Fischereiwissenschaften und Aquakultur. Und zu Zeit schreibe ich bei Robert Arlinghaus, den wahrscheinlich vom Namen nach die meisten kennen, meine Abschlussarbeit.

2 European Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission (EIFAC)
Statuary body of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations Inter-governmental networking forum linking policy-makers, managers and scientists working on inland fisheries and aquaculture Scientific work undertaken in Working Parties led by specialists from member countries 2

3 Why recreational fisheries? Because it is important and widespread
Average participation rate: 10.6% Hotspots: Scandinavia, Australia, Eastern Europe, North America Arlinghaus & Cooke 2009). In: Dickson et al. (eds.), Blackwell Science 3

4 Social, economic and ecological importance
Most important direct user of freshwater fish stocks (Arlinghaus & Cooke 2005, Science) Feeds a multi-billion industry (Arlinghaus et al. 2002, Fish Fish.) Incentives and engagement in fish conservation (Granek et al., 2008, Cons. Biol.) Overlooked potential for biological impacts (harvesting, stocking) 4

5 Increasingly noticed biological impacts of recreational harvesting
Rainbow trout: , CPUE 5.6 -> 0.25 fish/h, Total effort doubled Walleye: CPUE > 0.02 fish/ha Pike: CPUE 0.4 -> 0.04 fish/h Younger, larger fluctuations in year class strenght Bioscience Fisheries Science 5

6 Changes in structural attributes of the fish stock
Low frequency of large and old individuals in heavily exploited stocks (catch-and-kill fishery) Brown trout > age 4 Gedrez Brown trout of „large“ size 1.4 Naviego Exploited 5.5 3.4 Moal 5.1 Fishery Name der Gewässerstrecke in Spanien 25.4 Tablizas 15.5 43.5 Banzao 15.3 Unexploited 39.5 Zreizal 23.3 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 data: Braña et al. (1992), Hydrobiologia Relative frequency (%) Prozent am Gesamtfischbestand 6

7 Potential impacts of stocking
Competition (intraspecific, interspecific) Predation (mostly top-predators stocked) Introduction of novel pathogens (Gyrodactylus salaris; Anguillicola crassus, KHV, viruses and bacteria) Loss of genetic variability (introgression, outbreeding depression) Hoch Lewin, Arlinghaus & McPhee (2008), In: Aas, Arlinghaus et al., Blackwell Science 7

8 Introduction of exotic species and genotypes
A major problem throughout the world (Johnson et al. 2008, Front. Ecol. Evol.) Often illegal introduction by anglers or live release from bait buckets (Johnson, Arlinghaus & Martinez, 2009, Fisheries)

9 Radical Calls

10 Pressing issues for the future
Ethics and values – fish welfare, public attitudes towards fishing, conservation values, behaviour of a minority of fishers etc. result in intersectoral conflicts Intrasectoral conflicts - Horizontal conflicts between stakeholders, vertical conflicts between authorities and users Fishery declines and sustainability - recreational fishing sector has potential to negatively affect fish and fisheries Stocking - meeting environmental goals and fishers can mean conflicting demands in more natural water bodies Non-native species - detrimental effects from the stocking of non-native fish for recreation 10

11 Codes of Practice in Recreational Fisheries
Exist in some countries for local, regional or even national application produced either by fisheries authorities or NGOs (e.g., Nordic Angler Association) Need for more international agreement on good practice expressed at various World Recreational Fishing Conferences, starting in 1996 in Dublin (Hickley 1998) 11

12 EIFAC Working Party Publications
Output of Working Party on Recreational Fisheries English is official version, but is being translated by volunteers into other languages (currently available French, Spanish, Russian, Portuguese)

13 The drafting process Experts of 17 different nations ranging from mangers, scientists, NGOs and avid anglers collaborated under the leadership of the WP on Recreational Fisheries Consultation workshop in November 2007 at the Dutch Sport Fishing Organization Endorsed in May 2008 by EIFAC

14 Rationale Recreational fishing the most important user of most inland fish stocks and many coastal ones in industrialized countries (Arlinghaus et al. 2002, Fish Fish.) Diversity in fisheries types but similar rights and plight Largely overlooked in international policy on fisheries and sustainable fisheries management A Global Code of Practice for Recreational Fisheries needed to complement the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries (FAO 1995) with the specifics of recreational fisheries

15 Role of a Code of Practice Cowx & Arlinghaus, 2008, In: Aas et al
Role of a Code of Practice Cowx & Arlinghaus, 2008, In: Aas et al. (eds), Blackwell Publ. Code of Practice International agreements and conventions National animal welfare legislation National fisheries legislation National environmental legislation Code of Practice Regional fisheries regulations Code of Practice Local fisheries management, angler behaviour, conflicts

16 Framework of the Code of Practice
Works from assumption that recreational fisheries is a legitimate activity providing a vital source of benefits and well-being for people and ecosystems Acknowledges the importance of the recreational fisheries sector to help society in conserving and enhancing aquatic habitats Code of Practice designed to outline a minimum standards for environmentally friendly, ethically appropriate and, depending on local conditions, socially acceptable recreational fishing globally Is entirely voluntary and generic enough to fit alongside national legislation and regional best practice guidelines

17 Overarching goals Cowx & Arlinghaus (2008), In: Aas et al
Overarching goals Cowx & Arlinghaus (2008), In: Aas et al. (eds), Blackwell To increase awareness of recreational fisheries in the policy arena To increase acceptance of the sector as a major player in the world’s fisheries To improve management and development of recreational fisheries To improve the image of recreational fisheries within society

18 Specific objectives (Arlinghaus et al., Fisheries, in review)
To promote sustainable recreational fisheries To serve as a reference document to guide institutional and policy frameworks nationally and internationally To promote international exchange of knowledge and stimulate discussion To facilitate cooperation among researchers, managers and NGOs To “prepare” the recreational fisheries sector to burgeoning threats (e.g., animal liberation and rights movement)

19 The Challenge of a Generic Definition
Definition: Recreational fishing is fishing of aquatic animals that do not constitute the individual’s primary resource to meet nutritional needs and are not generally sold or otherwise traded on export, domestic or black markets (EIFAC 2008)

20 Structure: 13 Articles 2: Objectives 3: Implement. + Upd.
1: Nature & Scope 4: General Principles 5: Env. Stewardship 6: Instit. Framework 7: Compliance, Enforc. 8: Fishing Practice 9: Fish Welfare 10: Stakeholder Inter. 11: Mgmt. 12: Research 13: Aware., Educ.

21 PROMOTION and EDUCATION
Logic INTRODUCTION Article 1: Nature and Scope Article 2: Objectives Article 3: Implementation and Updating VALUES Article 4: General Principles Article 5: Environmental Stewardship And Ethics POLICY Hierarchical structure From the general to the particular Keys are the articles on Technical Substance and New Knowledge Article 6: Policy and Institutional Frameworks Article 7: Compliance and Enforcement TECHNICAL SUBSTANCE Article 8: Recreational Fishing Practice Article 9: Fish Welfare Article 10: Stakeholder Interactions Article 11: Management NEW KNOWLEDGE Article 12: Research Arlinghaus et al. (2010), Fish. Magmt. Ecol. PROMOTION and EDUCATION Article 13: Awareness, Education and Training 21

22 Articles 1-3: Introduction
2: Objectives 1: Nature & Scope 3: Implement.& Updating Scope (voluntary, recreational fisheries sector, EIFAC) Objectives statement as outlined before Authority for updating of the Code in the future

23 Articles 4 and 5: Values 4: General Principles 5: Env. Stewards To protect, promote and encourage access to recreational fishing To ensure sustainable use, conservation and management of recreational fisheries To avoid irreversible, costly or slowly reversible changes to aquatic biodiversity To avoid conflicts with commercial fisheries and other users of aquatic ecosystems To raise awareness that recreational fisheries can impact on fish stocks and aquatic ecosystems and encourage actions to minimize such impacts through best practice Environmental stewardship: moral obligation to care for aquatic environments and the actions undertaken to provide that care 23

24 Articles 6 and 7: Policy 6: Instit. Framework 7:Compl., Enforc. Governments, administrations and decision-makers should: establish policy and regulatory frameworks for the management of recreational fisheries provide resources and mechanisms for enforcement of rules and regulations ensure that the recreational fisheries sector is involved in other activities related to aquatic ecosystem management, conservation and planning provide the mechanisms to settle conflicts

25 PROMOTION and EDUCATION
Logic INTRODUCTION Article 1: Nature and Scope Article 2: Objectives Article 3: Implementation and Updating VALUES Article 4: General Principles Article 5: Environmental Stewardship And Ethics POLICY Hierarchical structure From the general to the particular Keys are the articles on Technical Substance and New Knowledge Article 6: Policy and Institutional Frameworks Article 7: Compliance and Enforcement TECHNICAL SUBSTANCE Article 8: Recreational Fishing Practice Article 9: Fish Welfare Article 10: Stakeholder Interactions Article 11: Management NEW KNOWLEDGE Article 12: Research Arlinghaus et al. (2010), Fish. Magmt. Ecol. PROMOTION and EDUCATION Article 13: Awareness, Education and Training 25

26 Article 8: Recreational Fishing Practices
Detailed, yet mostly common-sense, provisions related to Safety while fishing Fish stocks (e.g. not take more than needed, not leave gear unattended, where feasible – gill nets, traps exceptions) Litter (e.g. do not litter and remove litter from others) Environment and habitats (e.g. not illegally stock or transfer live fish, avoid damage to vegetation, avoid disturbance of waterfowl)

27 Article 9: Fish Welfare Focuses on what happens to the individual fish
No reference to contentious issues such as pain and suffering Function-based definition: good welfare means that an individual fish is in good health, with its biological systems functioning properly and with no impairment of fitness

28 Provisions in the Code A. Live baitfish, killing process
B. Catch-and-release, voluntary or manadatory C. Holding fish alive, weigh-in

29 Article 10: Stakeholder Interactions
Emphasises often-overlooked basic principles such as: To understand that some human activities have priority over recreational fishing To respect the values and perspectives of other stakeholders To respect the rights of land owners To respect other people’s privacy at the fishing site To work cooperatively to resolve conflicts

30 Article 11: Management Emphasizes basic management principles such as
11: Mgmt. Emphasizes basic management principles such as Ecosystem approach Precautionary approach

31 Article 11: Management Emphasizes basic management principles such as
11: Mgmt. Emphasizes basic management principles such as Ecosystem approach Precautionary approach Structured management process by identification of goals and measurable objectives Adaptive management though monitoring and evaluation of actions Decisions based on the best available science 31

32 Adaptive learning and management
Governance regime & institutional settings Goal Setting Policy Formulation Policy Implementation Monitoring & Evaluation State/Policy Assessment Improvement of policies Learning & Adaptation New information must be available and/or consciously collected (e.g. indicators of performance or change) and monitored over appropriate time scales Actors need to be able to process information and draw meaningful conclusions No expert culture with private access to information 32

33 Article 11: Management Emphasizes basic management principles such as
11: Mgmt. Emphasizes basic management principles such as Ecosystem approach Precautionary approach Structured management process by identification of goals and measurable objectives Adaptive management though monitoring and evaluation of actions Decisions must be based on the best available science Management at three levels: people, fish, environment 33

34 Management toolbox People Fish, habitats Size limits
Creel limits and harvest quotas Season limits Area restrictions (sanctuaries) Gear restrictions Prevention of stocking  Stocking  Habitat enhancement  Fish removal People Fish, habitats

35 Account for a diverse fishing clientele, manage for diversity (no panaceas)
Generic Consumptive 20 40 60 80 100 Number of angling licenses Trophy Mixed anglers 20 40 60 80 100 25 50 75 100 25 50 75 100 Minimum-size limit (cm) Johnston, Arlinghaus, Dieckmann, 2010, Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 35

36 Article 12: Research 12: Research Emphasizes the need for cooperation between researchers and local stakeholders, e.g. to identify research questions Highlights multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary nature of recreational fisheries research, specifically the need to integrate natural and social sciences Emphasizes the need for standardised monitoring programmes of fish and fisher dynamics to enable timely and well-grounded management responses Emphasizes need to document knowledge in published form

37 Article 13: Awareness, Education and Training
To disseminate new information, policies and regulations to the fishing public To communicate recent advances in recreational fisheries science objectively To invest funds for education and outreach programs To promote awareness of the CoP internationally and development of more specific regional and local codes (e.g. tailored towards particular fish species)

38 Summary and Outlook Framework that describes minimum standard of best practice principles, approaches and actions Useful for policy makers, NGOs, recreational fishing industry, managers and scientists as a communication tool for best practices May develop into a tool to facilitate assessment of recreational fisheries To be viable, it needs to be adopted by the international community and applied nationally and regionally and possibly further developed to meet regional specifics Technical Guidelines for Recreational Fisheries will be drafted under the auspices of FAO in 2011 to provide more substance to the rather densely-written and rather generic principles of the Code

39 Acknowledgements Raymon van Anrooy (FAO) for encouragement and drive for funding Financial support from the Central Fisheries Board in Ireland (Joe Caffrey), the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality (Arjo Rothuis), the Dutch Recreational Fishing Association (Fret Bloot) and the Adaptfish-Project (www.adaptfish.igb-berlin.de) 28 participants at international workshop in Bilthoven (The Netherlands) in November 2007 and EIFAC experts for their constructive feedback on earlier drafts The organizers of this symposium for the invitation!

40 Access to the Document ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/011/i0363e/i0363e00.pdf 40


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