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Robert Arlinghaus EIFAC, Sub-Commission IV, WP Recreational Fisheries Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Adaptfish-Project,

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Presentation on theme: "Robert Arlinghaus EIFAC, Sub-Commission IV, WP Recreational Fisheries Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Adaptfish-Project,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Robert Arlinghaus EIFAC, Sub-Commission IV, WP Recreational Fisheries Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Adaptfish-Project, Berlin, Germany Inland Fisheries Management Laboratory, Humboldt-University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany A Global Code of Practice for Recreational Fisheries: an Initiative by EIFAC

2 European Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission (EIFAC) Statuary body of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations Inter-governmental networking forum linking policy-makers, managers and scientists working on inland fisheries and aquaculture Scientific work undertaken in Working Parties led by specialists from member countries

3 Why recreational fisheries? Because it is important and widespread Average participation rate: 10.6% Hotspots: Scandinavia, Australia, Eastern Europe, North America Arlinghaus & Cooke 2009). In: Dickson et al. (eds.), Blackwell Science

4 Social, economic and ecological importance 1.Most important direct user of freshwater fish stocks (Arlinghaus & Cooke 2005, Science) 2.Feeds a multi-billion industry (Arlinghaus et al. 2002, Fish Fish.) 3.Incentives and engagement in fish conservation (Granek et al., 2008, Cons. Biol.) 4.Overlooked potential for biological impacts (harvesting, stocking)

5 Increasingly noticed biological impacts of recreational harvesting Rainbow trout: , CPUE 5.6 -> 0.25 fish/h, Total effort doubled Walleye: CPUE > 0.02 fish/ha Pike: CPUE 0.4 -> 0.04 fish/h Younger, larger fluctuations in year class strenght Bioscience Fisheries Science

6 Changes in structural attributes of the fish stock Zreizal Banzao Tablizas Moal Naviego Gedrez Name der Gewässerstrecke in Spanien Prozent am Gesamtfischbestand Brown trout > age 4 Brown trout of „large“ size data: Braña et al. (1992), Hydrobiologia Exploited Unexploited Fishery Low frequency of large and old individuals in heavily exploited stocks (catch-and-kill fishery) Relative frequency (%)

7 Potential impacts of stocking Hoch Competition (intraspecific, interspecific) Predation (mostly top-predators stocked) Introduction of novel pathogens (Gyrodactylus salaris; Anguillicola crassus, KHV, viruses and bacteria) Loss of genetic variability (introgression, outbreeding depression) Lewin, Arlinghaus & McPhee (2008), In: Aas, Arlinghaus et al., Blackwell Science

8 A major problem throughout the world (Johnson et al. 2008, Front. Ecol. Evol.) Often illegal introduction by anglers or live release from bait buckets (Johnson, Arlinghaus & Martinez, 2009, Fisheries) Introduction of exotic species and genotypes

9 Radical Calls

10 Pressing issues for the future Ethics and values – fish welfare, public attitudes towards fishing, conservation values, behaviour of a minority of fishers etc. result in intersectoral conflicts Intrasectoral conflicts - Horizontal conflicts between stakeholders, vertical conflicts between authorities and users Fishery declines and sustainability - recreational fishing sector has potential to negatively affect fish and fisheries Stocking - meeting environmental goals and fishers can mean conflicting demands in more natural water bodies Non-native species - detrimental effects from the stocking of non-native fish for recreation

11 Codes of Practice in Recreational Fisheries Exist in some countries for local, regional or even national application produced either by fisheries authorities or NGOs (e.g., Nordic Angler Association) Need for more international agreement on good practice expressed at various World Recreational Fishing Conferences, starting in 1996 in Dublin (Hickley 1998)

12 EIFAC Working Party Publications Output of Working Party on Recreational Fisheries English is official version, but is being translated by volunteers into other languages (currently available French, Spanish, Russian, Portuguese)

13 Experts of 17 different nations ranging from mangers, scientists, NGOs and avid anglers collaborated under the leadership of the WP on Recreational Fisheries Consultation workshop in November 2007 at the Dutch Sport Fishing Organization Endorsed in May 2008 by EIFAC The drafting process

14 Rationale Recreational fishing the most important user of most inland fish stocks and many coastal ones in industrialized countries (Arlinghaus et al. 2002, Fish Fish.) Diversity in fisheries types but similar rights and plight Largely overlooked in international policy on fisheries and sustainable fisheries management  A Global Code of Practice for Recreational Fisheries needed to complement the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries (FAO 1995) with the specifics of recreational fisheries

15 Role of a Code of Practice Cowx & Arlinghaus, 2008, In: Aas et al. (eds), Blackwell Publ. National animal welfare legislation National environmental legislation National fisheries legislation International agreements and conventions Regional fisheries regulations Local fisheries management, angler behaviour, conflicts Code of Practice

16 Works from assumption that recreational fisheries is a legitimate activity providing a vital source of benefits and well-being for people and ecosystems Acknowledges the importance of the recreational fisheries sector to help society in conserving and enhancing aquatic habitats Code of Practice designed to outline a minimum standards for environmentally friendly, ethically appropriate and, depending on local conditions, socially acceptable recreational fishing globally Is entirely voluntary and generic enough to fit alongside national legislation and regional best practice guidelines Framework of the Code of Practice

17 Overarching goals Cowx & Arlinghaus (2008), In: Aas et al. (eds), Blackwell To increase awareness of recreational fisheries in the policy arena To increase acceptance of the sector as a major player in the world’s fisheries To improve management and development of recreational fisheries To improve the image of recreational fisheries within society

18 To promote sustainable recreational fisheries To serve as a reference document to guide institutional and policy frameworks nationally and internationally To promote international exchange of knowledge and stimulate discussion To facilitate cooperation among researchers, managers and NGOs To “prepare” the recreational fisheries sector to burgeoning threats (e.g., animal liberation and rights movement) Specific objectives (Arlinghaus et al., Fisheries, in review)

19 The Challenge of a Generic Definition Definition: Recreational fishing is fishing of aquatic animals that do not constitute the individual’s primary resource to meet nutritional needs and are not generally sold or otherwise traded on export, domestic or black markets (EIFAC 2008)

20 Structure: 13 Articles 4: General Principles 5: Env. Stewardship 6: Instit. Framework 9: Fish Welfare 10: Stakeholder Inter. 7: Compliance, Enforc. 8: Fishing Practice 11: Mgmt. 12: Research 13: Aware., Educ. 2: Objectives3: Implement. + Upd. 1: Nature & Scope

21 Logic Article 1: Nature and Scope Article 2: Objectives Article 3: Implementation and Updating INTRODUCTION Article 4: General Principles Article 5: Environmental Stewardship And Ethics VALUES POLICY Article 6: Policy and Institutional Frameworks Article 7: Compliance and Enforcement TECHNICAL SUBSTANCE Article 8: Recreational Fishing Practice Article 9: Fish Welfare Article 10: Stakeholder Interactions Article 11: Management NEW KNOWLEDGE Article 12: Research Article 13: Awareness, Education and Training PROMOTION and EDUCATION Hierarchical structure From the general to the particular Keys are the articles on Technical Substance and New Knowledge Arlinghaus et al. (2010), Fish. Magmt. Ecol.

22 Articles 1-3: Introduction Scope (voluntary, recreational fisheries sector, EIFAC) Objectives statement as outlined before Authority for updating of the Code in the future 1: Nature & Scope 2: Objectives 3: Implement.& Updating

23 Articles 4 and 5: Values To protect, promote and encourage access to recreational fishing To ensure sustainable use, conservation and management of recreational fisheries To avoid irreversible, costly or slowly reversible changes to aquatic biodiversity To avoid conflicts with commercial fisheries and other users of aquatic ecosystems To raise awareness that recreational fisheries can impact on fish stocks and aquatic ecosystems and encourage actions to minimize such impacts through best practice Environmental stewardship: moral obligation to care for aquatic environments and the actions undertaken to provide that care 4: General Principles 5: Env. Stewards

24 Articles 6 and 7: Policy Governments, administrations and decision-makers should: -establish policy and regulatory frameworks for the management of recreational fisheries -provide resources and mechanisms for enforcement of rules and regulations -ensure that the recreational fisheries sector is involved in other activities related to aquatic ecosystem management, conservation and planning -provide the mechanisms to settle conflicts 6: Instit. Framework 7:Compl., Enforc.

25 Logic Article 1: Nature and Scope Article 2: Objectives Article 3: Implementation and Updating INTRODUCTION Article 4: General Principles Article 5: Environmental Stewardship And Ethics VALUES POLICY Article 6: Policy and Institutional Frameworks Article 7: Compliance and Enforcement TECHNICAL SUBSTANCE Article 8: Recreational Fishing Practice Article 9: Fish Welfare Article 10: Stakeholder Interactions Article 11: Management NEW KNOWLEDGE Article 12: Research Article 13: Awareness, Education and Training PROMOTION and EDUCATION Hierarchical structure From the general to the particular Keys are the articles on Technical Substance and New Knowledge Arlinghaus et al. (2010), Fish. Magmt. Ecol.

26 Article 8: Recreational Fishing Practices Detailed, yet mostly common-sense, provisions related to – Safety while fishing – Fish stocks (e.g. not take more than needed, not leave gear unattended, where feasible – gill nets, traps exceptions) – Litter (e.g. do not litter and remove litter from others) – Environment and habitats (e.g. not illegally stock or transfer live fish, avoid damage to vegetation, avoid disturbance of waterfowl) 8: Fishing Pract.

27 Article 9: Fish Welfare Focuses on what happens to the individual fish No reference to contentious issues such as pain and suffering Function-based definition: good welfare means that an individual fish is in good health, with its biological systems functioning properly and with no impairment of fitness 9: Fish Welfare

28 Provisions in the Code B. Catch-and-release, voluntary or manadatory A. Live baitfish, killing process C. Holding fish alive, weigh-in

29 Article 10: Stakeholder Interactions Emphasises often-overlooked basic principles such as: -To understand that some human activities have priority over recreational fishing -To respect the values and perspectives of other stakeholders -To respect the rights of land owners -To respect other people’s privacy at the fishing site -To work cooperatively to resolve conflicts 10: Stakeholder Interact.

30 Article 11: Management Emphasizes basic management principles such as – Ecosystem approach – Precautionary approach 11: Mgmt.

31 Article 11: Management Emphasizes basic management principles such as – Ecosystem approach – Precautionary approach – Structured management process by identification of goals and measurable objectives – Adaptive management though monitoring and evaluation of actions – Decisions based on the best available science 11: Mgmt.

32 Goal Setting Policy Formulation Policy Implementation Monitoring & Evaluation State/Policy Assessment Learning & Adaptation Improvement of policies Governance regime & institutional settings Adaptive learning and management

33 Article 11: Management Emphasizes basic management principles such as – Ecosystem approach – Precautionary approach – Structured management process by identification of goals and measurable objectives – Adaptive management though monitoring and evaluation of actions – Decisions must be based on the best available science – Management at three levels: people, fish, environment 11: Mgmt.

34 Size limits Creel limits and harvest quotas Season limits Area restrictions (sanctuaries) Gear restrictions Prevention of stocking  Stocking  Habitat enhancement  Fish removal People Fish, habitats Management toolbox

35 Account for a diverse fishing clientele, manage for diversity (no panaceas) Johnston, Arlinghaus, Dieckmann, 2010, Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci Generic Consumptive Minimum-size limit (cm) Number of angling licenses Trophy Mixed anglers

36 Article 12: Research 12: Research Emphasizes the need for cooperation between researchers and local stakeholders, e.g. to identify research questions Highlights multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary nature of recreational fisheries research, specifically the need to integrate natural and social sciences Emphasizes the need for standardised monitoring programmes of fish and fisher dynamics to enable timely and well-grounded management responses Emphasizes need to document knowledge in published form

37 Article 13: Awareness, Education and Training 13: Awareness, Educ. To disseminate new information, policies and regulations to the fishing public To communicate recent advances in recreational fisheries science objectively To invest funds for education and outreach programs To promote awareness of the CoP internationally and development of more specific regional and local codes (e.g. tailored towards particular fish species)

38 Summary and Outlook Framework that describes minimum standard of best practice principles, approaches and actions Useful for policy makers, NGOs, recreational fishing industry, managers and scientists as a communication tool for best practices May develop into a tool to facilitate assessment of recreational fisheries To be viable, it needs to be adopted by the international community and applied nationally and regionally and possibly further developed to meet regional specifics Technical Guidelines for Recreational Fisheries will be drafted under the auspices of FAO in 2011 to provide more substance to the rather densely-written and rather generic principles of the Code

39 Acknowledgements Raymon van Anrooy (FAO) for encouragement and drive for funding Financial support from the Central Fisheries Board in Ireland (Joe Caffrey), the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality (Arjo Rothuis), the Dutch Recreational Fishing Association (Fret Bloot) and the Adaptfish-Project (www.adaptfish.igb- berlin.de) 28 participants at international workshop in Bilthoven (The Netherlands) in November 2007 and EIFAC experts for their constructive feedback on earlier drafts The organizers of this symposium for the invitation!

40 Access to the Document ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/011/i0363e/i0363e00.pdf


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