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What is Bioenergetics? “…..the study of the flow and transformation of energy in and between living organisms and between living organisms and their environment”

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Presentation on theme: "What is Bioenergetics? “…..the study of the flow and transformation of energy in and between living organisms and between living organisms and their environment”"— Presentation transcript:

1 What is Bioenergetics? “…..the study of the flow and transformation of energy in and between living organisms and between living organisms and their environment”

2 What Goes In = What Comes Out MUST! Consumption = Metabolism + Waste + Growth

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4 Why bioen is useful to fish ecology? –It is a mathematical representation of how a fish grows –Allows researchers, students and managers a way to understand …..

5 Typical Energy Budgets Differ for Carnivores & Herbivores: Normalized PercentagesConsumptionRespirationWasteGrowth Carnivore100 = Herbivores100 = Largescale Stoneroller Green Sunfish Muskellunge

6 Consumption = Income Bioenergetics ~ Economics Growth = Savings and Investments Metabolism = Rent (temp. and ritz) Wastes & Losses = Taxes Consumption = Metabolism + Waste + Growth

7 Lake CheeseburgerLake Salad = June 1 ? Sept 1 Why would growth be different?

8  More food?  Better quality food?  Don’t work as hard for food?  Lakes are different temperatures?  Stress, contaminants, food webs

9 Model Components: C onsumption C = G onads  Reproduction ΔB iomass  Growth + (ΔB + G) R espiration  Basal Metabolism A ctive Metabolism  Costs from activity S pecific Dynamic Action  Costs from digestion (R + A + S) Egestion- F & Excretion - U + (F + U)

10 Independent C = consumption C = + (ΔB + G) (R + A + S)+ (F + U) Losses R = respiration A = active metabolism S = specific dynamic action Gains ΔB = Change in biomass (somatic growth) G = gonads /reproduction Losses F= egestion U = excretion

11 Specific Rate (g/g/d) Temperature (C) grams prey grams of body mass day All processes are temp. and size dependent Grams body mass stays the same, so how much you eat is what is changing

12 All processes are temp. and size dependent Specific Rate (g/g/d) Temperature (C) growth SDA excretion egestion Max. Consumption = Cmax starvationUpper lethal loss of growth respiration “Golden Banana” Too hot,body starts to fail

13 Maximum consumption isn't realistic p-value = proportion of maximum consumption Specific Rate (g/g/d) Temperature (C) Maximum 80% of Maximum Pvalue =.80 growth SDA excretion egestion respiration

14 Maximum consumption isn't realistic p-value = proportion of maximum consumption growth respiration SDA excretion egestion 35% of Maximum P-value =.35 Realistic Value Specific Rate (g/g/d) Temperature (C) Maximum starvationUpper lethal loss of growth

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16 How do we estimate these basic relationships? Yellow Perch Like the relationship between temperature and maximum consumption…..lab experiments and or field data Feed ad libitum – as much as possible Cold moderate HotTooHot Temperature grams/grams/day

17 starvationUpper lethal Temperature (C) Consumption = Cmax loss of growth Specific Rate (g/g/d) Consumption and Respiration  Temperature Dependent Respiration

18 Consumption and Respiration  Size Dependent Specific Consumption g/g/d Maximum Consumption g/d Weight (g) FOR A GIVEN TEMPERATURE

19 C = + (ΔB + G)(R + A + S)+ (F + U) C -- G(R + A + S)- (F + U) Can also organize equation in terms of growth.. ΔB = Can solve for any of the different parameters of the equations….hence the power of bioenergetics Solve for Consumption Main equation can be organized in 2 ways

20 What do we need to run the model?

21 Growth: Length Category (10cm) # Caught SEPT 1 70mm Mark and recap Length Category (10cm) # Caught JUNE 1 40mm Length Frequency

22 Measure growth: Calcified structures fish parts: scales, otoliths, vertebrae, rays, opercula 15 mm – Age0 76 mm – Age1 123 mm – Age2

23 What else do we need to run the model? Temperatures where fish live (optimal temperature, lethal limits) alewife - 20° C bluegill - 29° C coho salmon - 15° C largemouth bass – 27.5° C muskellunge - 26° C northern pike - 24° C rainbow smelt - 13° C rainbow trout - 20° C striped bass – 21.6° C walleye - 22° C yellow perch - 26° C smallmouth bass – 29 ° C sea lamprey - 18° C chinook salmon - 15° C

24 What do we need to run the model? What a fish eats (Diets!)…

25 What do we need to run the model? Prey and Predator Energy Densities … Zooplankton – 2513 j/g wet mass Leech – 2400 j/g dry mass Snails – 1800 j/g dry mass Crayfish – 3766 j/g wet mass Alewife – 7225 j/g wet mass Yellow Perch – 5000 j/g dry mass

26 What do we need to run the model? Basic physiological parameters… Egestion (size/temp dependent)  F Excretion (size/temp dependent)  U Specific Dynamic Action  SDA Basal Metabolism  R Active Metabolism  A Where do we get all these….? - We do painstakingly difficult lab experiments (imagine having to measure fish excrement or…) - We steal them, I mean “borrow” them! - Species borrowing is common, it can cause problems - Should evaluate and test if borrowing is appropriate

27 How have bioenergetic models been used in fisheries?

28 Control of sea lamprey will result in a 5% increase in lake trout survival How much will rainbow smelt mortality increase? Calculate increase in trout biomass, then use bioenergetics to calculate increase in consumption of rainbow smelt Sea Lamprey Control and Lake Trout Rainbow smelt mortality will increase by 3 percent (La Bar 1993)

29 Alewives and P Cycling in Lake Michigan (Kraft 1993) Question: How much do alewives in Lake Michigan contribute to phosphorus regeneration? Alewives may promote phytoplankton growth by recycling P through egestion and excretion Bioenergetics nutrient analysis was used to find that 12,000 metric tons of P were regenerated per year Strong year classes may contribute to algal blooms

30 Climate Change and Sockeye Salmon Production Climate change may result in increased temperatures and less upwelling How will this affect production of sockeye salmon? (Hinch et al 1995) If temperatures increase 2-4 degrees C, the combination of lower food availability and higher temperatures would result in a 10-30% decrease in adult mass may also lead to lower juvenile survival

31 What do bioenergetis have to do with the University of Wisconsin? Father of modern bioenergetics Kitchell, J.F., and J.T. Windell Rate of gastric digestion in pumpkinseed sunfish, Lepomis gibbosus. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 97(4): Kitchell, J.F Thermophilic and thermophobic responses of snakes in a thermal gradient. Copeia 1969(1): Windell, J.T., D.O. Norris, J.F. Kitchell, and J.S. Norris Digestive response of rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri, to pellet diets. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 26(7): Kitchell, J.F., and J.T. Windell Nutritional value of algae to bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus. Copeia 1970(1): Windell, J.T., and J.F. Kitchell A laboratory-discussion exercise on earthworm behavior. BSCS Newsletter. Soc. 41:2-6. Windell, J.T., D.O. Norris, J.H. Bock, and J.F. Kitchell General Biology Laboratory II. Kendall/Hunt Publ. Co., Dubuque, Iowa. 129 p. Kitchell, J.F., and J.T. Windell Energy budget for the lizard, Anolis carolinensis. Physiol. Zool. 45: Baumann, P.C., J.F. Kitchell, J.J. Magnuson, and T.B. Kayes Lake Wingra, : a case history of human impact. Trans. Wis. Acad. Sci. Arts Lett. 62: Baumann, P.C., and J.F. Kitchell Diel patterns of distribution and feeding of bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus, in Lake Wingra, Wisconsin. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 103: Kitchell, J.F., J.F. Koonce, R.V. O'Neill, H.H. Shugart, Jr., J.J. Magnuson, and R.S. Booth Model of fish biomass dynamics. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 103: McCormick, A.J.A., O.L. Loucks, J.F. Koonce, J.F. Kitchell, and P.R. Weiler An ecosystem model for the pelagic zone of a lake. In V.J. Yannacone, ed., Proceedings American Bar Association National Institute Environmental Litigation. American Bar Association, Chicago. Stein, R.A., J.F. Kitchell and B. Knezevic Selective predation by carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) on benthic molluscs in Skadar Lake, Yugoslavia. J. Fish Biol. 1975: Kitchell, J.F., J.F. Koonce, and P.S. Tennis Phosphorus flux through fishes. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 19: Windell, J.T., J.F. Kitchell, D.O. Norris, J.S. Norris, and J.W. Foltz Temperature and rate of gastric evacuation by rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 105: Kitchell, J.F., M. Johnson, L. Greig, K. Loftus, K. Minns, and C. Olver Percid habitat: the river analogy. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 34: Kitchell, J.F., D.J. Stewart, and D. Weininger Applications of a bioenergetics model to perch (Perca flavescens) and walleye (Stizostedion vitreum). J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 34: Kitchell, J.F., J.J. Magnuson, and W.H. Neill Estimation of caloric equivalents for fish biomass. Environ. Biol. Fish. 2: Bartell, S.M., and J.F. Kitchell Seasonal impact of planktivory on phosphorus release by Lake Wingra zooplankton. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 20: Gallepp, G.W., J.F. Kitchell, and S.M. Bartell Phosphorus released from lake muds affected by chironomids. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 20: Kitchell, J.A., J.F. Kitchell, D.L. Clark, and L. Dangeard Deep sea foraging behavior: its bathymetric potential in the fossil record. Science 200: Kitchell, J.F., R.A. Stein, and B. Knezevic Utilization of filamentous algae by fishes in Skadar Lake, Yugoslavia. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 20: Kitchell, J.A., J.F. Kitchell, G.L. Johnson, and K. Hunkins Abyssal traces and megafauna: comparison of productivity, diversity and density in the Arctic and Antarctic. Paleobiology 4: Kitchell, J.F., W.H. Neill, A.E. Dizon, and J.J. Magnuson Bioenergetic spectra of skipjack and yellowfin tunas. Pages in G.D. Sharp and A.E. Dizon (eds.), Physiological Ecology of Tunas. Academic Press, New York. Kitchell, J.F In search of an optimal environment. Pages in R.H. Stroud and H.E. Clepper (eds.), Predator-Prey Systems in Fisheries Management. Sport Fishing Institute, Washington, D.C. Kitchell, J.F., R.V. O'Neill, D. Webb, G.W. Gallepp, S.M. Bartell, J.F. Koonce, and B.S. Ausmus Consumer regulation of nutrient cycling. BioScience 29: Lozano, S.L.,and J.F. Kitchell Response of a mobile invertebrate to heterothermal conditions. Pages in J.H. Thorpe and J.W. Gibbons (eds.), Energy and Environmental Stress in Aquatic Systems. Selected papers from a symposium held at Augusta, Georgia. Technical Information Center, U.S. Department of Energy. Breck, J.E., and J.F. Kitchell Effects of macrophyte harvesting on simulated predator-prey interactions. Pages in J.E. Breck et al. (eds.), Aquatic Plants, Lake Management, and Ecosystem Consequence of Lake Harvesting. Proceedings of a conference at Madison, Wisconsin. Inst. for Env. Studies, UW-Madison. 435 pages. Loucks, O.L., M.S. Adams, J.E. Breck, J.F. Kitchell, R.D. Koegel, D. F. Livermore, R.T. Pretki, and J.E. Ross Conference findings: an overview. Pages in J.E. Breck et al. (eds.), Aquatic Plants, Lake Management, and Ecosystem Consequences of Lake Harvesting. Proceedings of a conference at Madison, Wisconsin. Inst. for Env. Studies, University of Wisconsin-Madison. 435 p. Kitchell, J.A., and J.F. Kitchell Size selective predation, light transmission, and oxygen stratification: evidence from the recent sediments of manipulated lakes. Limnol. and Oceanogr. 25: Kitchell, J.F Fish dynamics and phosphorus cycling in lakes. Pages in D. Scavia and R. Moll (eds.), Nutrient Cycling in the Great Lakes: a Summarization of Factors Regulating the Cycling of Phosphorus. Special Report No. 83. NOAA, Great Lakes Env. Res. Lab., Ann Arbor, Michigan. 140 p. Kitchell, J.F., and J.E. Breck A bioenergetics model and foraging hypothesis for sea lamprey. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 37: Walters, C.J., G. Spangler, W.J. Christie, P. Marion, and J.F. Kitchell A synthesis of knowns, unknowns and policy recommendations from the Sea Lamprey International Symposium. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 37: Backiel, T., J. Thorpe, and J.F. Kitchell Secondary production--fish. Pages in E.D. LeCren and R.H. Lowe-McConnell (eds.), Functioning of Freshwater Ecosystems. Cambridge University Press, London. Kitchell, J.A., C.H. Boggs, J.F. Kitchell, and J.A. Rice Prey selection by naticid gastropods: experimental tests and application to the fossil record. Paleobiology 7(4): Stewart, D.J., J.F. Kitchell, and L.B. Crowder Forage fishes and their salmonid predators in Lake Michigan. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 110: Kitchell, J.F Energetics. Pages in P. Webb and D. Weihs (eds.), Fish Biomechanics. Praeger Publishers, New York. 398 p. Rice, J.A., J.E. Breck, S.M. Bartell, and J.F. Kitchell Evaluating the constraints of temperature, activity and consumption on growth of largemouth bass. Env. Biol. Fish. 9: Boggs, C.B., J.A. Rice, J.A. Kitchell, and J.F. Kitchell Predation at a snail's pace: what's time to a gastropod? Oecologia 62: Carpenter, S.R., and J.F. Kitchell Plankton community structure and limnetic primary production. American Naturalist 124: Kitchell, J.F., H.F. Henderson, E. Grygierek, J. Hrbacek, S. Kerr, M.Pedini, T. Petr, J. Shapiro, R. Stein, J. Stenson, and T. Zaret Management of Lakes by Food-Chain Manipulation. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. 83 p. Carpenter, S.R., J.F. Kitchell, and J.R. Hodgson Cascading trophic interactions and lake productivity. BioScience 35: Kitchell, J.F An ecological rationale for managing predator-prey systems in the Great Lakes. Pages in R. L. Eshenroder (ed.), Presented Papers from the Council of Lake Committees Plenary Session on Great Lakes Predator-Prey Issues, March 20, Great Lakes Fishery Commission, Special Publication 85-3.

32 Carpenter, S.R., and J.F. Kitchell Simulation models of the trophic cascade: predictions and evaluations. Pages in S.R. Carpenter and J.F. Kitchell (eds.), The Trophic Cascade in Lakes. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, England. Kitchell, J.F., and S.R. Carpenter Synthesis and new directions. Pages in S.R. Carpenter and J.F. Kitchell (eds.), The Trophic Cascade in Lakes. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, England. Kitchell, J. F., S. R. Carpenter, J. R. Hodgson, X. He and P. A. Soranno Phosphorus in food webs: Compensatory responses in experimental lakes. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 25: Carpenter, S. R., X. He, J. F. Kitchell and P. A. Soranno Whole lake experiments: Is grazer functional response stable? Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 25: Hansen, M. J., D. Boisclair, S. B. Brandt, S. W. Hewett, J. F. Kitchell, M. C. Lucas, and J. J. Ney Applications of bioenergetics models to fish ecology and management: Where do we go from here? Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 122: Schindler, D. E., J. F. Kitchell, X. He, S. R. Carpenter, J. R. Hodgson and K. L. Cottingham Food web structure and phosphorus cycling in lakes. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 122: He, X., J. F. Kitchell, S. R. Carpenter, J. R. Hodgson and D. E. Schindler Food web configuration and long-term phosphorus recycling: A simulation model evaluation. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 122: He, X., J.. Hodgson, J. R., J. F. Kitchell and R. A. Wright Growth and diet composition of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) from four experimental lakes. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 25: Schindler, D. E., B. M. Johnson, N. A. MacKay, N. Bouwes and J. F. Kitchell Crab:snail size-structured interactions and salt marsh predation gradients. Oecologia 97: Carpenter, S. R., T. M. Frost, A. R. Ives, J. F. Kitchell and T. K. Kratz Complexity, cascades and compensation in ecosystems. In Yasuna, M. and M. M. Watanabe (eds.) Biodiversity: Its Complexity and Role. Global Environmental Forum, Tokyo, Japan. Pp Kitchell, J. F., E. A. Eby, X. He, D. E. Schindler and R. M. Wright Predator-prey dynamics in an ecosystem context. J. Fish Biol. 45: Kitchell, J.F., and L.B. Crowder Predator-prey interactions in Lake Michigan: model predictions and recent dynamics. Env. Biol. Fish. 16(1-3): Kraft, C.E., and J.F. Kitchell Partitioning of food resources by sculpins in Lake Michigan. Env. Biol. Fish. 16(4): Kitchell, J.A., C.H. Boggs, J.A. Rice, J.F. Kitchell, A. Hoffman, and J. Martinell Anomalies in naticid predatory behavior: a critique and experimental observations. Malacalogia 27(2): Kitchell, J.F., and S.R. Carpenter Piscivores, planktivores, fossils and phorbins. Pages in W.C. Kerfoot and A. Sih (eds.), Predation: Direct and Indirect Impacts on Aquatic Communities. University Press of New England, Hanover, N.H. Carpenter, S.R., and J.F. Kitchell The temporal scale of variance in limnetic primary productivity. Am. Nat. 129(3): Hodgson, J.R., and J.F. Kitchell Opportunistic foraging by largemouth bass (Micropterus salmonides). Am. Midl. Nat. 118(2): Carpenter, S.R., J.F. Kitchell, J.R. Hodgson, P.A. Cochran, J.J. Elser, M.M. Elser, D.M. Lodge, D. Kretchmer, X. He and C.N. von Ende Regulation of lake ecosystem productivity by food web structure. Ecology 68(6): Kitchell, J.F., and S.W. Hewett Forecasting forage demand and yield of sterile chinook salmon in Lake Michigan. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 44(Suppl. 2): Carpenter, S.R., and J.F. Kitchell Introduction. Pages 1-8. in S.R. Carpenter (ed.), Complex Interactions in Lake Communities. Springer-Verlag, New York Carpenter, S.R., and J.F. Kitchell Consumer control of lake productivity. BioScience 38: Hartig, J.H., J.F. Kitchell, D. Scavia, and S.B. Brandt Rehabilitation of Lake Ontario: the role of nutrient reduction and food web dynamics. Report to the Great Lakes Science Advisory Board, International Joint Commission. 75 p. Kitchell, J.F., and S.R. Carpenter Food web manipulation in experimental lakes. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 23: Kitchell, J.F., M.S. Evans, D. Scavia, and L.B. Crowder Food web regulation of water quality in Lake Michigan: report of a workshop. J. Great Lakes Res. 14: Scavia, D., G.A. Lang, and J.F. Kitchell Dynamics of Lake Michigan plankton: a model evaluation of nutrient loading, competition and predation. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 45: Kitchell, J.F., S.M. Bartell, S.R. Carpenter, D.J. Hall, D.J. McQueen, W.E. Neill, D. Scavia, and E.E. Werner Epistemology, experimentation and pragmatism. Pages in S.R. Carpenter (ed.), Complex Interactions in Lake Communities. Springer-Verlag, New York Leavitt, P.R., S.R. Carpenter, and J.F. Kitchell. l989. Whole lake experiments: the annual record of fossil pigments and zooplankton. Limnol. Oceanogr. 34: Cochran, P.A., and J.F. Kitchell. l989. A model of feeding by parasitic lampreys. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 46: Crowder, L., R. Francis, E. Fritz, D. Hoss, J. Kitchell, R. Lasker, P. Ortner, K. Sherman, and G. Stauffer. l989. Recruitment Fisheries Oceanography Program Development Plan. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Washington D.C. 102 p. Vanni, M.J., C. Luecke, J.F. Kitchell, and J.J. Magnuson Effects of planktivorous fish mass mortality on the plankton community of Lake Mendota, Wisconsin: implications for biomanipulation. Hydrobiologia 200/201: Kitchell, J.F. l990. Fisheries in the Great Lakes: a brief history as related to research and management programs for Lake Champlain. Water Resources Res. Reports, Univ. Vermont. Pp Kitchell, J.F. l990. The scope for mortality caused by sea lamprey. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 119: Vanni, M.J., C. Luecke, J.F. Kitchell, Y. Rentmeester, J. Temte and J.J. Magnuson Cascading trophic interactions and phytoplankton abundance in a eutrophic lake: effects of massive fish mortality. Nature 344: He, X., and J.F. Kitchell Direct and indirect effects of predation on a fish community: a whole lake experiment. Trans. Amer. Fish Soc. 119: Luecke, C., M.J. Vanni, J.J. Magnuson, J.F. Kitchell, and P.T. Jacobson Seasonal regulation of Daphnia populations by planktivorous fish: implications for the spring clear water phase. Limnol. Oceanogr. 35(8): Hartig, J.H., J.F. Kitchell, D. Scavia, and S.B. Brandt Rehabilitation of Lake Ontario: the role of nutrient reduction and food web dynamics. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 48: Carpenter, S.R., T.M. Frost, J.F. Kitchell, T.K. Kratz, D.W. Schindler, J. Shearer, W.G. Sprules, M.J. Vanni, and A.P. Zimmerman. l991. Patterns of primary production and herbivory in 25 North American lake ecosystems. Pages in J. Cole, S. Findlay, and G. Lovett (eds.), Comparative Analyses of Ecosystems: Patterns, Mechanisms and Theories. Springer-Verlag, New York. Kitchell, J.F. l991. Salmonid carrying capacity: estimates and experiences in the Great Lakes of North America. Pages in. R.J. Svrjcek (ed.), Marine Ranching: Proceedings of the Seventeenth U.S.-Japan Meeting on Aquaculture, Ise, Japan, NOAA Technical Report NMFS 102. National Marine Fisheries Service, [Washington, D.C.]. Kitchell, J.F., S.R. Carpenter, S.W. Bayley, K.C. Ewel, R.W. Howarth, S.M. Nixon, and D.W. Schindler Aquatic ecosystem experiments in the context of global climate change: working group report. Pages in H.A. Mooney et al. (eds.), Ecosystem Experiments. John Wiley and Sons, Sussex, England. Boggs, C.H., and J.F. Kitchell. l991. Tuna metabolic rate estimated from energy losses during starvation. Physiol. Zool. 64: Carpenter, S.R., S.G. Fisher, N.B. Grimm, and J.F. Kitchell. l992. Global change and freshwater ecosystems. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 23: Carpenter, S.R., and J.F. Kitchell. l992. Trophic cascade and biomanipulation: interface of research and management. Limnol. Oceanogr.37: Kitchell, J.F. (ed.). l992. Food Web Management: A Case Study of Lake Mendota. Springer-Verlag, New York. 553 p. Kitchell, J.F. l992. Introduction: the rationale and goals for food web management in Lake Mendota. Pages 1-5 in J.F.Kitchell (ed.). Food Web Management: A Case Study of Lake Mendota. Springer-Verlag, New York. Kitchell, J.F. and P.R. Sanford. l992. Paleolimnological evidence of food web structure. Pages in J.F.Kitchell (ed.). Food Web Management: A Case Study of Lake Mendota. Springer-Verlag, New York. Kitchell, J.F., and S.R. Carpenter. l992. Summary: accomplishments and new directions of food web management in Lake Mendota. Pages in J.F.Kitchell (ed.). Food Web Management: A Case Study of Lake Mendota. Springer-Verlag, New York. Johnson, B.M., R.S. Stewart, C. Luecke, M.D. Staggs, S.J. Gilbert and J.F. Kitchell Forecasting effects of harvest regulations and stocking on prey fish communities in Lake Mendota, Wisconsin. N. Amer. J. Fish. Mgmt. 12: Johnson, B. L., S. R. Milliman, R. C. Bishop and J. F. Kitchell Evaluating fishery rehabilitation under uncertainty: a bioeconomic analysis of quota management for the Green Bay yellow perch fishery. N. Amer. J. Fish. Mgmt. 12: Carpenter, S.R., T.M. Frost, T.K. Kratz, and J.F. Kitchell Species dynamics and global environmental change: a perspective from ecosystem experiments. Pages in J. Kingsolver, P. Kareiva, and R. Huey (eds.), Biotic Interactions and Global Change. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Mass. Kitchell, J. F. and S. R. Carpenter. l993. Variability in lake ecosystems: complex responses by the apical predator. Pages in M. McDonnell and S. Pickett (eds.) Humans as Components of Ecosystems. Springer-Verlag, New York. Carpenter, S.R., and J.F. Kitchell (eds.) The Trophic Cascade in Lakes. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, England. Kitchell, J.F., and S.R. Carpenter. Cascading trophic interactions Pages 1-14 in S.R. Carpenter and J.F. Kitchell (eds.), The Trophic Cascade in Lakes. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, England. Carpenter, S.R., and J.F. Kitchell Experimental lakes, manipulations and measurements. Pages 15-25in S.R. Carpenter and J.F. Kitchell (eds.), The Trophic Cascade in Lakes. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, England. Hodgson, J.R., X. He, and J.F. Kitchell. The fish populations Pages in S.R. Carpenter and J.F. Kitchell (eds.), The Trophic Cascade in Lakes. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, England. He, X., R.A. Wright, and J.F. Kitchell. Fish behavioral and community responses to manipulation Pages 69-84in S.R. Carpenter and J.F. Kitchell (eds.), The Trophic Cascade in Lakes. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, England. He, X., J.F. Kitchell, J.R. Hodgson, R.A. Wright, P.A. Soranno, D.M. Lodge, P.A. Cochran, D.A. Benkowski, and N.A. Bouwes Roles of fish predation: piscivory and planktivory. Pages in S.R. Carpenter and J.F. Kitchell (eds.), The Trophic Cascade in Lakes. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, England. Leavitt, P.R., P.A. Sanford, S.R. Carpenter, J.F. Kitchell, and D.A. Benkowski. Annual fossil pigment records of food web manipulation Pages in S.R. Carpenter and J.F. Kitchell (eds.), The Trophic Cascade in Lakes. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, England. 4

33 Kitchell, J.F. l990. The scope for mortality caused by sea lamprey. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 119: Vanni, M.J., C. Luecke, J.F. Kitchell, Y. Rentmeester, J. Temte and J.J. Magnuson Cascading trophic interactions and phytoplankton abundance in a eutrophic lake: effects of massive fish mortality. Nature 344: He, X., and J.F. Kitchell Direct and indirect effects of predation on a fish community: a whole lake experiment. Trans. Amer. Fish Soc. 119: Luecke, C., M.J. Vanni, J.J. Magnuson, J.F. Kitchell, and P.T. Jacobson Seasonal regulation of Daphnia populations by planktivorous fish: implications for the spring clear water phase. Limnol. Oceanogr. 35(8): Hartig, J.H., J.F. Kitchell, D. Scavia, and S.B. Brandt Rehabilitation of Lake Ontario: the role of nutrient reduction and food web dynamics. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 48: Carpenter, S.R., T.M. Frost, J.F. Kitchell, T.K. Kratz, D.W. Schindler, J. Shearer, W.G. Sprules, M.J. Vanni, and A.P. Zimmerman. l991. Patterns of primary production and herbivory in 25 North American lake ecosystems. Pages in J. Cole, S. Findlay, and G. Lovett (eds.), Comparative Analyses of Ecosystems: Patterns, Mechanisms and Theories. Springer-Verlag, New York. Kitchell, J.F. l991. Salmonid carrying capacity: estimates and experiences in the Great Lakes of North America. Pages in. R.J. Svrjcek (ed.), Marine Ranching: Proceedings of the Seventeenth U.S.-Japan Meeting on Aquaculture, Ise, Japan, NOAA Technical Report NMFS 102. National Marine Fisheries Service, [Washington, D.C.]. Kitchell, J.F., S.R. Carpenter, S.W. Bayley, K.C. Ewel, R.W. Howarth, S.M. Nixon, and D.W. Schindler Aquatic ecosystem experiments in the context of global climate change: working group report. Pages in H.A. Mooney et al. (eds.), Ecosystem Experiments. John Wiley and Sons, Sussex, England. Boggs, C.H., and J.F. Kitchell. l991. Tuna metabolic rate estimated from energy losses during starvation. Physiol. Zool. 64: Carpenter, S.R., S.G. Fisher, N.B. Grimm, and J.F. Kitchell. l992. Global change and freshwater ecosystems. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 23: Carpenter, S.R., and J.F. Kitchell. l992. Trophic cascade and biomanipulation: interface of research and management. Limnol. Oceanogr.37: Kitchell, J.F. (ed.). l992. Food Web Management: A Case Study of Lake Mendota. Springer-Verlag, New York. 553 p. Kitchell, J.F. l992. Introduction: the rationale and goals for food web management in Lake Mendota. Pages 1-5 in J.F.Kitchell (ed.). Food Web Management: A Case Study of Lake Mendota. Springer-Verlag, New York. Kitchell, J.F. and P.R. Sanford. l992. Paleolimnological evidence of food web structure. Pages in J.F.Kitchell (ed.). Food Web Management: A Case Study of Lake Mendota. Springer-Verlag, New York. Kitchell, J.F., and S.R. Carpenter. l992. Summary: accomplishments and new directions of food web management in Lake Mendota. Pages in J.F.Kitchell (ed.). Food Web Management: A Case Study of Lake Mendota. Springer-Verlag, New York. Johnson, B.M., R.S. Stewart, C. Luecke, M.D. Staggs, S.J. Gilbert and J.F. Kitchell Forecasting effects of harvest regulations and stocking on prey fish communities in Lake Mendota, Wisconsin. N. Amer. J. Fish. Mgmt. 12: Johnson, B. L., S. R. Milliman, R. C. Bishop and J. F. Kitchell Evaluating fishery rehabilitation under uncertainty: a bioeconomic analysis of quota management for the Green Bay yellow perch fishery. N. Amer. J. Fish. Mgmt. 12: Carpenter, S.R., T.M. Frost, T.K. Kratz, and J.F. Kitchell Species dynamics and global environmental change: a perspective from ecosystem experiments. Pages in J. Kingsolver, P. Kareiva, and R. Huey (eds.), Biotic Interactions and Global Change. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Mass. Kitchell, J. F. and S. R. Carpenter. l993. Variability in lake ecosystems: complex responses by the apical predator. Pages in M. McDonnell and S. Pickett (eds.) Humans as Components of Ecosystems. Springer-Verlag, New York. Carpenter, S.R., and J.F. Kitchell (eds.) The Trophic Cascade in Lakes. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, England. Kitchell, J.F., and S.R. Carpenter. Cascading trophic interactions Pages 1-14 in S.R. Carpenter and J.F. Kitchell (eds.), The Trophic Cascade in Lakes. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, England. Carpenter, S.R., and J.F. Kitchell Experimental lakes, manipulations and measurements. Pages 15-25in S.R. Carpenter and J.F. Kitchell (eds.), The Trophic Cascade in Lakes. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, England. Hodgson, J.R., X. He, and J.F. Kitchell. The fish populations Pages in S.R. Carpenter and J.F. Kitchell (eds.), The Trophic Cascade in Lakes. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, England. He, X., R.A. Wright, and J.F. Kitchell. Fish behavioral and community responses to manipulation Pages 69-84in S.R. Carpenter and J.F. Kitchell (eds.), The Trophic Cascade in Lakes. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, England. He, X., J.F. Kitchell, J.R. Hodgson, R.A. Wright, P.A. Soranno, D.M. Lodge, P.A. Cochran, D.A. Benkowski, and N.A. Bouwes Roles of fish predation: piscivory and planktivory. Pages in S.R. Carpenter and J.F. Kitchell (eds.), The Trophic Cascade in Lakes. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, England. Leavitt, P.R., P.A. Sanford, S.R. Carpenter, J.F. Kitchell, and D.A. Benkowski. Annual fossil pigment records of food web manipulation Pages in S.R. Carpenter and J.F. Kitchell (eds.), The Trophic Cascade in Lakes. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, England. Carpenter, S.R., and J.F. Kitchell Simulation models of the trophic cascade: predictions and evaluations. Pages in S.R. Carpenter and J.F. Kitchell (eds.), The Trophic Cascade in Lakes. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, England. Kitchell, J.F., and S.R. Carpenter Synthesis and new directions. Pages in S.R. Carpenter and J.F. Kitchell (eds.), The Trophic Cascade in Lakes. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, England. Kitchell, J. F., S. R. Carpenter, J. R. Hodgson, X. He and P. A. Soranno Phosphorus in food webs: Compensatory responses in experimental lakes. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 25: Carpenter, S. R., X. He, J. F. Kitchell and P. A. Soranno Whole lake experiments: Is grazer functional response stable? Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 25: Hansen, M. J., D. Boisclair, S. B. Brandt, S. W. Hewett, J. F. Kitchell, M. C. Lucas, and J. J. Ney Applications of bioenergetics models to fish ecology and management: Where do we go from here? Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 122: Schindler, D. E., J. F. Kitchell, X. He, S. R. Carpenter, J. R. Hodgson and K. L. Cottingham Food web structure and phosphorus cycling in lakes. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 122: He, X., J. F. Kitchell, S. R. Carpenter, J. R. Hodgson and D. E. Schindler Food web configuration and long-term phosphorus recycling: A simulation model evaluation. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 122: He, X., J.. Hodgson, J. R., J. F. Kitchell and R. A. Wright Growth and diet composition of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) from four experimental lakes. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 25: Schindler, D. E., B. M. Johnson, N. A. MacKay, N. Bouwes and J. F. Kitchell Crab:snail size-structured interactions and salt marsh predation gradients. Oecologia 97: Carpenter, S. R., T. M. Frost, A. R. Ives, J. F. Kitchell and T. K. Kratz Complexity, cascades and compensation in ecosystems. In Yasuna, M. and M. M. Watanabe (eds.) Biodiversity: Its Complexity and Role. Global Environmental Forum, Tokyo, Japan. Pp Kitchell, J. F., E. A. Eby, X. He, D. E. Schindler and R. M. Wright Predator-prey dynamics in an ecosystem context. J. Fish Biol. 45: Leavitt, P.R., P.R. Sanford, S.R. Carpenter, and J.F. Kitchell. l994. An annual fossil record of production, planktivory and piscivory during whole lake experiments. J. Paleolimnology 11: Schindler, D. E., S. T. Carpenter; K. L. Cottingham, X. He, J. R. Hodgson, J. F. Kitchell and P. A. Soranno Food web structure and littoral zone coupling to pelagic trophic cascades. In G. Polis and K. O. Winemiller (eds). Food Webs: Integration of Patterns and Dynamics. Chapman Hall, NY. Pp Carpenter, S. R., D. L. Christensen, J. J. Cole, K. L Cottingham, X. He, J. R. Hodgson, J. F. Kitchell, S. E. Knight, M. L. Pace, D. M. Post, D. E. Schindler and N. Voichick Biological control of eutrophication in lakes. Env. Sci. and Tech. 29: Kitchell, J. F Toxic contaminants in the Great Lakes: A polythetic view of the issues and evidence. Ecol. Appl. 5: Rudstam, L.G., P.E. Peppard, T.W. Fratt, R.E.Bruesewitz, D.W.Coble, F.A. Copes and J. F. Kitchell Prey consumption by the burbot (Lota lota) population in Green Bay, Lake Michigan, based on a bioenergetics model. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 52: Eby, L. A., L. G. Rudstam and J. F. Kitchell Predator responses to prey population dynamics: an empirical analysis based on lake trout growth rates. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci Post, D. M., T. M. Frost and J. F. Kitchell Morphological responses by Bosmina longirostris and Eubosmina tubicen to changes in copepod predator populations during a whole-lake acidification experiment. J. Plankton Res. 17: Hansson, S., L. G. Rudstam, J. F. Kitchell, M. Hilden, B. L. Johnson and P. E. Peppard Predation rates by North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) - predictions from models on gastric evacuation and bioenergetics. ICES J. Marine Sci. 51: Cochran, P.S., and J.F. Kitchell Use of modeling to investigate feeding strategies of parasitic lampreys. Env. Biol. Fish. 16(1-3): Leavitt, P.R., P.R. Sanford, S.R. Carpenter, and J.F. Kitchell. l994. An annual fossil record of production, planktivory and piscivory during whole lake experiments. J. Paleolimnology 11: Schindler, D. E., S. T. Carpenter; K. L. Cottingham, X. He, J. R. Hodgson, J. F. Kitchell and P. A. Soranno Food web structure and littoral zone coupling to pelagic trophic cascades. In G. Polis and K. O. Winemiller (eds). Food Webs: Integration of Patterns and Dynamics. Chapman Hall, NY. Pp Carpenter, S. R., D. L. Christensen, J. J. Cole, K. L Cottingham, X. He, J. R. Hodgson, J. F. Kitchell, S. E. Knight, M. L. Pace, D. M. Post, D. E. Schindler and N. Voichick Biological control of eutrophication in lakes. Env. Sci. and Tech. 29: Kitchell, J. F Toxic contaminants in the Great Lakes: A polythetic view of the issues and evidence. Ecol. Appl. 5: Rudstam, L.G., P.E. Peppard, T.W. Fratt, R.E.Bruesewitz, D.W.Coble, F.A. Copes and J. F. Kitchell Prey consumption by the burbot (Lota lota) population in Green Bay, Lake Michigan, based on a bioenergetics model. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 52: Eby, L. A., L. G. Rudstam and J. F. Kitchell Predator responses to prey population dynamics: an empirical analysis based on lake trout growth rates. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci Post, D. M., T. M. Frost and J. F. Kitchell Morphological responses by Bosmina longirostris and Eubosmina tubicen to changes in copepod predator populations during a whole-lake acidification experiment. J. Plankton Res. 17: Hansson, S., L. G. Rudstam, J. F. Kitchell, M. Hilden, B. L. Johnson and P. E. Peppard Predation rates by North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) - predictions from models on gastric evacuation and bioenergetics. ICES J. Marine Sci. 51:

34 Carpenter, S. R., J. F. Kitchell, K. L. Cottingham, D. E. Schindler, D. L. Christensen, D. M. Post and N. Voichick Chlorophyll variability, nutrient input and grazing: evidence from whole-lake experiments. Ecology: Kitchell, J. F Where do we go from here? An outsider's view of the Symposium on Pacific salmon and Their Ecosystem. Pages In D. J. Stouder, P. A. Bisson and R. J. Naiman (eds.). Pacific Salmon and Their Ecosystem: Status and Future Options. 685 pp. Carpenter, S. R., L. M. Jackson, J. F. Kitchell, and C. R. Stow That was then, but this is now--A reply to Gilbertson and Ludwig. Ecol. Appl. 6: In press. Johnson, T. B., and J. F. Kitchell Long-term changes in zooplantivorous fish community composition: Implications for food webs. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 53: Kitchell, J. F., D. E. Schindler, R. Ogutu-Ohwayo and P. M. Reinthal The Nile perch in Lake Victoria: interactions between predation and fisheries. Ecol. Appl. 7: Post, D. M., and J. F. Kitchell Trophic ontogeny and life history effects on interactions between age-0 fish and zooplankton. Arch. Hydrobiol. Spec. Issues Advanc. Limnol. 49:1-12. Schindler, D.E., J.R. Hodgson and J.F. Kitchell Density-dependent changes in individual foraging specialization of largemouth bass. Oecologia 110: Post, D. M., S. R. Carpenter, D. L. Christensen, K. L. Cottingham, J. R. Hodgson, J. F. Kitchell and D. E. Schindler Seasonal effects of variable recruitment of a dominant piscivore on pelagic food web structure. Limnol. Oceanogr. 42: Hansson, S., D. M. Post, J. F. Kitchell and T. S. McComish Predation by yellow perch (Perca flavescens) in southern Lake Michigan--a model analysis. International Symposium on Forage Fish Dynamics, Univ. of Alaska Sea Grant, Anchorage, Alaska. Eby, L. A., C. A. Stow, R. J. Hesselberg and J. F. Kitchell Modeling changes in growth and diet on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) bioaccumulation in bloater (Coregonus hoyi). Ecol. Appl. 7: Hanson, P.C., T. B. Johnson, D. E. Schindler, and J. F. Kitchell Fish Bioenergetics 3.0. Sea Grant Technical Report, University of Wisconsin Sea Grant Institute, Madison, WI. 119 pages. Schindler, D. E., S. R. Carpenter, J. J. Cole, J. F. Kitchell and M. L. Pace Food web structure alters carbon exchange between lakes and the atmosphere. Science 277: Hodgson, J. R., X. He, D. E. Schindler, and J. F. Kitchell Diet overlap in a piscivore community. Ecol of Freshwater Fish 6: Kitchell, J.F., and M.L. Pace Understanding human modifications of the ocean: Opportunities for large-scale experiments. Carpenter, S. R., J. J. Cole, J. F. Kitchell and M. L. Pace Impact of dissolved organic carbon, phosphorus and grazing on phytoplankton biomass and production in experimental lakes. Limnol. and Oceanogr. 43: Schindler, D.E., J.F. Kitchell and R. Ogutu-Ohwayo Ecological consequences of alternative gill net fisheries for Nile perch in Lake Victoria. Conservation Biology 12: Post, D. M., J. P. Taylor, J. F. Kitchell, M. H. Olson, D. E. Schindler and B. E. Herwig The role of migratory waterfowl as nutrient vectors in a managed wetland. Conservation Biology 12: Kitchell, J. F Physiological ecology. Pages In S.I. Dodson (ed.), Ecology. Oxford Univ. Press. 434 p. Mason, D. M., T. B. Johnson and J. F. Kitchell Consequences of prey fish community dynamics on lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) foraging efficiency in Lake Superior. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.55: Johnson, T.B., D.M. Mason, C.R. Bronte, and J.F. Kitchell Estimation of invertebrate production from patterns of forage fish consumption in western Lake Superior. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 127: Carpenter, S. R., J. Cole, T. E. Essington, J. R. Hodgson, J. Houser, J. F. Kitchell and M. L. Pace Evaluating alternative explanations in ecosystem experiments. Ecosystems 1: Post, D. M., J. F. Kitchell and J. R. Hodgson Interactions of spawning date, growth rates, predation and overwinter mortality in largemouth bass recruitment. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 55: Essington, T. E., and J. F. Kitchell New perspectives in the analysis of fish distributions: A case study on the spatial distribution of largemouth bass. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 56: Johnson, T. B., D. M. Mason, S. T. Schram and J. F. Kitchell Ontogenetic and seasonal patterns in the energy content of piscivorous fishes in Lake Superior. J. Great Lakes Res. 25: Kitchell, J. F., D. E. Schindler, B. R. Herwig, D. M. Post, M. H. Olson and M. Oldham Nutrient cycling at the landscape scale: The role of diel foraging migrations by geese at the Bosque del Apache Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico. Limnology and Oceanography 44: Kitchell, J. F., C. Boggs, X. He and C. J. Walters Keystone predators in the Central Pacific. Pages In Proc. 12th Wakefield Symposium on Ecological Considerations in Fisheries Management. Univ. of Alaska Sea Grant, Anchorage, Alaska. 756 pp. Carpenter, S. R., J. F. Kitchell, J. J. Cole and M. L. Pace Predicting responses of chlorophyll and primary production to changes in phosphorus, grazing and dissolved organic carbon. Limnology and Oceanography 44: Pace, M. L., J. J. Cole, S. R. Carpenter and J. F. Kitchell Trophic cascades revealed in diverse ecosystems. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 14: Walters, C. J., D. M. Pauly, V. Christensen and J. F. Kitchell Representing density dependent consequences of life history strategies in aquatic ecosystems: EcoSim II. Ecosystems 3: Harvey, C.J., and J.F. Kitchell A stable isotope evaluation of the structure and spatial heterogeneity of a Lake Superior food web. Can. J. of Fish. Aquat. Sci. 57: Essington, T.E., J.R. Hodgson and J.F. Kitchell The role of satiation in the functional response of a piscivore, largemouth bass. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 57: Kitchell, J. F., S. P. Cox, C. J. Harvey, T. B. Johnson, D. M. Mason, K. K. Schoen, K. Aydin, C. Bronte, M. Ebener, M. Hansen, M. Hoff, S. Schram, D. Schreiner and C. J. Walters Sustainability of the Lake Superior fish community: Interactions in a food web context. Ecosystems 3: Walters, C. J., and J. F. Kitchell Cultivation/depensation effects on juvenile survival and recruitment. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 58: Carpenter, S.R., J.J. Cole, J.R. Hodgson, J.F. Kitchell, M.L. Pace, D. Bade, K.L. Cottingham, T.E. Essington, J.N. Houser and D.E. Schindler Trophic cascades, nutrients and lake productivity: experimental enrichment of lakes with contrasting food webs. Ecological Monographs 71(2): Carpenter, S.R., and J.F. Kitchell Resolution of respect: Arthur Davis Hasler, Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 82: Cole, J. J., M. L. Pace, S. R. Carpenter, and J. F. Kitchell Persistence of net heterotrophy in lakes during nutrient addition and food web manipulations. Limnology and Oceanography 45: Petersen, J., and J. F. Kitchell Climate regimes and water temperature changes in the Columbia River: Effects on predators of juvenile salmon. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.: 58: Harvey, C.J., P.C. Hanson, T.E. Essington, P.B. Brown, and J.F. Kitchell Using bioenergetics models to predict stable isotope ratios in fishes. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 59: Essington, T. E., J. F. Kitchell and C. J. Walters The Von Bertalanffy growth function, bioenergetics and the consumption rates of fish. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 58: Essington, T.E., D.E. Schindler., R. J. Olson, J. F. Kitchell, C. J. Boggs and R. Hilborn Alternative fisheries and the predation rate of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Ecological Applications 12: Lathrop, R.C., B.M. Johnson, T.B. Johnson, M.T. Vogelsang, S.R. Carpenter, T.R. Hrabik, J.F. Kitchell, J.J. Magnuson, L.G. Rudstam, and R.S. Stewart Stocking piscivores to improve fishing and water clarity: a synthesis of the Lake Mendota biomanipulation project. Freshwat. Biol. 47: Kitchell, J. F., T. E. Essington, C. H. Boggs, D. E. Schindler and C. J. Walters The role of sharks and longline fisheries in a pelagic ecosystem of the central Pacific. Ecosystems 5: Schindler, D. E., T. E. Essington, J. F. Kitchell, C. J. Boggs and R. Hilborn Sharks and tunas: Fisheries impacts on predators with contrasting life histories. Ecological Applications 12: Harris, G. P., S. W. Bigelow, J. J. Cole, H. Cyr, L. L. Janus, A. P. Kinzig, J. F. Kitchell, G. E. Likens, K. H. Reckhow, D. Scavia, D. Soto, L. M. Talbot, and P. H. Templer The role of models in ecosystem management In C. D. Canham, J. J. Cole and W. K. Laurenroth (eds.) The Role of Models in Ecosystem Science. Princeton Univ. Press. Princeton NJ. Olson, R.J., G.M. Watters, K.Y. Audin, C.H. Boggs, T.E. Essington, R.C. Francis, J.F. Kitchell, J.J. Polovina, and C.J. Walters Interactive effects of climate variability and fishing: a modelling analysis for the eastern tropical Pacific pelagic ecosystem. In Christensen, V., G. Reck, and J.L. Maclean (eds.), Proceedings of the INCO-DC Conference Placing Fisheries in their Ecosystem Context. Galápagos Islands, Ecuador, 4-8 December ACP-EU Fish. Res. Rep. 12: Harvey, C.J., S.T. Schram, and J.F. Kitchell Trophic relationships among lean and siscowet lake trout in Lake Superior. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 132: Cox, S. P., S. J. D. Martell, C. J. Walters, T. E. Essington, J. F. Kitchell, C. H. Boggs, and I. Kaplan Reconstructing ecosystem dynamics in the central Pacific Ocean, : I. Estimating population biomass and recruitment of tunas and billfishes Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 59: Cox, S. P., T. E. Essington, J. F. Kitchell, S. J. D. Martell, C. J. Walters, C. H. Boggs and I. Kaplan Reconstructing ecosystem dynamics in the central Pacific Ocean, : II. a preliminary assessment of the trophic impacts of fishing and effects on tuna dynamics. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 59: Cole, J. J., S. R. Carpenter, J. F. Kitchell and M. L. Pace Pathways of organic C utilization in small lakes: Results from a whole-lake 13C addition and coupled model. Limnology and Oceanography 47: Harvey, C. J., S. P. Cox, T. E. Essington, S. Hansson and J. F. Kitchell An ecosystem model of food web and fisheries interactions in the Baltic Sea. ICES Journal of Marine Science 60: Cox, S. P., and J. F. Kitchell Lake Superior Ecosystem, : simulating alternative hypotheses for recruitment failure of lake herring (Coregonus artedi). Bull. Mar. Sci.: In press. Watters G. M., R. J. Olson, R. C. Francis, P. C. Fiedler, J. J. Polovina, S. B. Reilly, K. Y. Aydin, C. H. Boggs, T. E. Essington, C. J. Walters and J. F. Kitchell Physical forcing and the dynamics of the pelagic ecosystem in the eastern tropical Pacific: simulations with ENSO-scale and global warming climate drivers. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.: In press. Johnson, T. B., M. H. Hoff3, A. S. Trebitz, C. R. Bronte, W. P. Brown, T. D. Corry, J. F. Kitchell, S. T. Lozano, D. M. Mason, J. V. Scharold, S. T. Schram, and D. R. Schreiner. Spatial patterns in assemblage structures of pelagic forage fish and zooplankton in western Lake Superior. J. Great Lakes Res.: In press Pace, M. L. J. J. Cole, S. R. Carpenter, J. F. Kitchell, J. R. Hodgson, M. Van de Bogert, D. L. Bade, E. S. Kritzberg and D. Bastviken Whole lake carbon-13 additions reveal terrestrial support of aquatic food webs. Nature 427: Kitchell, J. F., I. Kaplan, S. P. Cox, S. J. D. Martell, T. E. Essington, C. H. Boggs and C. J. Walters Ecological and economic components of alternative fishing methods to reduce by-catch of marlin in a tropical pelagic ecosystem. Bull. Mar. Sci.: In press Hinke, J. T., I. C. Kaplan, K. Aydin, G. M. Watters, R. J. Olson, and J. F. Kitchell Visualizing the food-web effects of fishing for tunas in the Pacific Ocean. Ecology and Society (formerly Conservation Ecology)9(1): 10. [online] Sass, G. G., S. W. Hewett, T. D. Beard, A. H. Fayram, and J. F. Kitchell The role of density-dependence in growth patterns of ceded territory walleye populations of Northern Wisconsin: effects of changing management regimes. N. Amer. J. Fish. Mgmt. In press. 4


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