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CHAPTERS 31 + 32 Plant Structure and Function. 31.3 Three Basic Parts of a Plant: Roots, Stems, and Leaves.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTERS 31 + 32 Plant Structure and Function. 31.3 Three Basic Parts of a Plant: Roots, Stems, and Leaves."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTERS Plant Structure and Function

2 31.3 Three Basic Parts of a Plant: Roots, Stems, and Leaves

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4 Roots Anchors the plant in the soil Absorbs an transports minerals and water Stores food

5 Stem Above the ground Supports and separates the leaves Flowers for reproduction Leaves for photosynthesis

6 Leaf -“the blade” -Usually flat to receive sunlight -Veins contain water and food-conducting tubes

7 Some Leaf Vocabulary Parenchyma = non-woody, functioning part of the plant Chlorenchyma= photosynthesizing non- woody, functioning part of the plant

8 Leaf Blade = usually the flat, broad organ above ground – the leaf Midrib= central or main vein

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10 Xylem Tissue Contains two water-conducting cells: Dead, only cell walls Water moves only up the plant.

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13 Phloem Food conducting tubes (up and down) Cells remain alive

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15 Transpiration Evaporation of water from mostly leaves (could also be stems). Transpiration You Tube

16 How does the water get from the roots to the leaves? 1. Root pressure – water absorbed in roots 2. Mass flow of liquid water from the roots to the leaves is driven in part by capillary action up the xylem tubes. 3. Transpiration evaporation pulls the water up.

17 Capillary Action in Xylem Adhesion of water to sides of xylem tubes (hydrophilic cellulose molecules via H-bonds) and cohesion of water to water molecules (H-bonds) to make a column.

18 Transpiration Pulling force of water by evaporation Guard cells control transpiration.

19 How Guard Cells Work A stoma opens when its guard cells gain K + ions and water by osmosis The water vacuoles become turgid and the guard cells become bowed (inner membrane is thicker) as they fill and open the stoma

20 How the Guard Cells Work (2) When the guard cells lose K+, they also lose water by osmosis The water vacuoles become flaccid and less bowed The stomata close

21 Usually Guard cells keep stomata open during the day CO 2 enters for photosynthesis Guard cells keep stomata closed at night No sunlight-no photosynthesis-save water

22 3 clues to stomatal opening at dawn 1. SUNLIGHT-stimulates guard cells to accumulate K+ 2. LOW LEVEL OF CO 2 in the leaf 3. BIOLOGICAL CLOCK of some sort (even if put in a dark closet, they will still open)

23 If it is a drought, WHAT HAPPENS? The stomata will close to reduce water loss and prevent wilting. This also slows down CO 2 intake and photosynthesis.

24 Root Pressure Pushes water up xylem a few meters

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27 Fig Comparison of monocots and eudicots

28 Fig A Bean Germination (a Eudicot)

29 Fig B Corn Germination (a monocot)

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31 Leaf Texture Waxy Hairy Rough

32 Leaf Shape

33 Leaf Arrangement on Stem

34 Leaf Venation


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