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Curriculum in natural environmental science, vol. 2, 2010 Plankton and benthic fauna Theodora Maria Onciu Ovidius University Constanta, Romania.

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Presentation on theme: "Curriculum in natural environmental science, vol. 2, 2010 Plankton and benthic fauna Theodora Maria Onciu Ovidius University Constanta, Romania."— Presentation transcript:

1 curriculum in natural environmental science, vol. 2, 2010 Plankton and benthic fauna Theodora Maria Onciu Ovidius University Constanta, Romania

2 FOOD CHAIN in AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS ….for review…. Autotrophic organisms utilize inorganic CO 2 to produce organic matter; Heterotrophic organisms depend on performed organic carbon (glucose); Phototrophs derive energy directly from sunlight in photosynthesis; Chemotrophs utilize a chemical energy source. In aquatic ecosystems: PRIMARY PRODUCTION unicellular algae living in plankton and benthic flora PARTICULATE ORGANIC MATER and decomposers PRIMARY CONSUMMERS herbivores and filter-feeding organisms SECONDARY CONSUMMERS CARNIVORES

3 CRITERIA FOR PLANKTON CLASSIFICATION dimensions plankters which are not captured by the net nannoplankton (5-50µm) net plankters microplankton ( µm) mesoplankton (1-5mm) life cycle holoplankton meroplankton nutrition photoautotrophicphytoplankton heterotrophiczooplankton

4 CRITERIA FOR PLANKTON CLASSIFICATION taxonomical phytoplankton CyanobacteriaAnabaena, Microcystis ChlorophytaVolvox, Chlorella EuglenophytaEuglena DesmidiaceaeClosterium, Micrasterias PyrrophytaCeratium BacillariophytaCyclotella, Fragillaria zooplankton CiliataParamecium, Frontonia Rotatoria filter feedersBrachionus omnivorousSynchaeta carnivorousAsplanchna Cladocera filter feedersDaphnia carnivorousLeptodora Copepoda CalanidaDiaptomus CyclopoidaCyclops

5 Cyclops furciferBrachionus quadridentatus Chydorus sphaericus Microcystis aeruginosa Desmidiacea Bacillariophyta

6 CRITERIA FOR BENTHIC PLANTS CLASSIFICATION taxonomical macroalgae Cladophora, Chara mosses Sphagnum liverworts Marchantia ferns Salvina, Marsilea angiospermsPhragmites, Nuphar, Ceratophyllum, Carex ecological rooted macrophytes emergent plantsPhragmites, Scirpus vegetative and reproductive parts partially under water Nuphar, Nymphaea, Trapa, Butomus, Sagittaria, Vallisneria submergent plantsElodea, Chara non rooted macrophytes  submergentCeratophyllum  free floating plantsSalvinia, Lemna attached to the substrata periphyton

7 Zonation of aquatic macrophytes

8 Azolla Marsilea quadrifolia Salvinia natans Free floating plants: ferns

9 Emergent plants: Phragmites australis

10 Plants wits vegetative and reproductive parts partially under water Nymphaea alba Hydrocharis morsus ranae Stratiotes aloides Sagittaria sagittifolia Trapa natans

11 The importance of plankton’s and benthic plant’s study consist in:  knowledge of biological diversity;  ascertainment of plankter’s adaptations on flotation and of pondweeds to the abiotic conditions;  explaining the food web in ecosystem, pointing out feeding behaviours and interactions between predators and their prey and among algae and the herbivores;  determination of wetland’s features and boundaries;  diagnose of the health of the aquatic ecosystem or wetland;

12 Protocol of scientific study global comparison and evaluation of results consulting references and metadata conclusions drawing database realisation statistical analysis of results establishing of a quantitative structure of each association taxonomical analysis of organisms (using identification keys) appreciation of area covered by certain plant/plant association sampling activity (in the field) and realisation of photographs selection of sampling methods establishing of physical and chemical water parameters to be analyzed setting of sample locations and photographic points (points marked by GPS) drawing up of a thorough sketch of the research zone spatial and temporal scale of investigations identification of scientific problems

13 Marking the point with a GPS device Alisma plantago Collecting water for FPK sample

14 Collecting ZPK with net for vertical tows Schindler-Patalas trap Filtering ZPK through a net

15 Filtering ZPK through a sieve Collecting ZPK with net for horizontal tows

16 Collecting by hand benthic flora

17 Works cited Cole, G., A Textbook of Limnology, C.V. Mosby Company, Toronto. Damian-Georgescu, A Copepoda Fam Cyclopidae (forme de apă dulce) Fauna RPR, Editura Academiei RPR, Bucureşti: 4(6). Damian-Georgescu, A Crustacea Copepoda Calanoida (forme de apă dulce) Fauna RPR, Editura Academiei RPR, Bucureşti: 4(11). Dussart, B Limnologie : l’étude des eaux continentales, Gauthiers-Villars, Paris. Friedrich, J., Dinkel, Ch., Grieder, E., Radan, S., Steingruber, S. and Wehrli, B Delta lakes as nutrient sinks – a process study in the Danube Delta. Geo-Eco-Marina, 4: 5-19 Goldman, Ch.,R. and Horne, A.J Limnology, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Toronto. Kalff, J Limnology, Prentice Hall, New Jersey. Mitsch, W., J. and Gosselink, J.,G Wetlands, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey. Negrea, St Cladocera, Fauna R.S.R., Ed. Academiei RSR, Bucureşti, 4(12). Nybakken, J., W. and Bertness, M., D Marine biology; an ecological approach, Pearson, San Francisco. Parsons, J., K., Hamel, K., S., Madsen, J., D. and Getsinger, K.,D The use of 2,4-D for selective control of an early infestation of Eurasian watermilfoil in Loon Lake, Washington. J.Aquat.Plant Manage, 39:

18 Pérès, J.-M. and Devèse, L Océanographie biologique et biologie marine, Presses universitaires de France, Paris. Rudescu, L Trochelminthes. Rotatoria, Fauna R.P.R. Editura Academiei RPR, Bucureşti, 2(2). Sameoto, D., Wiebe, P., Runge, J., Postel, L., Dunn, J., Miller, C. And Combs, S Collecting zooplankton. In: Harris, R., Wiebe, P., Lenz, J., H.-R., Skjoldal and Huntley, M. [Eds] ICES Zooplankton methodology manual, Elsevier Skjoldal, H.-R., Wiebe, P., H. and Foote, K.,G Sampling and experimental design. In: Harris, R., Wiebe, P., Lenz, J., H.-R., Skjoldal and Huntley, M. [Eds] ICES Zooplankton methodology manual, Elsevier

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