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Basic Signs and Procedures

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Presentation on theme: "Basic Signs and Procedures"— Presentation transcript:

1 Basic Signs and Procedures
BASIC FIRST AID Basic Signs and Procedures

2 Universal Response Determine nature of emergency
Call for medical help (911) Avoid moving the person Assess the person’s condition and provide necessary assistance

3 Medical Emergency A Medical Emergency exists when the injury or sudden illness is assessed to be “life threatening” or one that requires immediate advanced medical attention.

4 Examples Cardiac arrest Stopped breathing Choking Heavy bleeding Burns
Heart attack Broken bones poisoning Shock Dislocated joints Stroke Status Epilepticus Anaphylactic Shock

5 Communication Guidelines
Begin communicating as soon as you approach Keep trying to communicate Ask what happened Tell the person what happened Tell the person you will help Tell the person what you are doing

6 Bleeding There are approximately 4 quarts of blood in the human body.

7 Control External Bleeding
Place clean barrier on wound Apply direct pressure Maintain direct pressure and protect the wound. Elevate unless a broken bone is suspected. If bleeding persists use a pressure point in addition to direct pressure. Call 911; Stay until help arrives, monitor breathing and circulation

8 Heavy Bleeding If bleeding continues AND is life threatening,
Use a tourniquet to stop the bleeding. Call 911 Stay until help arrives, monitor breathing and circulation Use of a tourniquet is when you must sacrifice a limb for a life.

9 Head, Neck, Back Injuries
Do not move the victim Keep them calm and comfortable Report the injury Report any unusual behavior Call for medical help – bleeding or fluid from nose or mouth or ears Stay until help arrives, monitor breathing and circulation

10 Nose Bleed Usually occur when there is a blow to the nose.
Apply Direct Pressure – firmly pinching the nostrils with the thumb and forefinger Have the victim tilt their head forward DO NOT pack the nose with cotton or gauze. Ice will help reduce inflammation.

11 Shock Shock is not a specific disease or injury, but a physical state that is potentially fatal. It is a failure of the cardiovascular system to keep adequate blood circulating to the vital organs of the body. Shock is most commonly caused by a loss of blood, exposure to an allergen, or poorly managed diabetes.

12 Signs of Traumatic Shock
Acting restless but feels weak Usually unable to explain symptoms to you Confused behavior Very fast or very slow breathing and pulse rate Cool, moist skin Weakness in arms and legs

13 First Aid - Shock Keep victim calm and quiet
Have them lie on their back – feet slightly elevated Maintain normal body temperature Call for medical help (911) Stay until help arrives, monitor breathing and circulation

14 Anaphylactic Shock Caused by a severe allergy (insect stings, usually wasp or bee stings, or injections or reactions of some medications). Medical help must be obtained immediately because the condition can only be treated with medication.

15 Signs of Anaphylactic Shock
Flushing, itching, or burning skin Hives or swelling Difficulty breathing, wheezing Swelling around mouth, tongue, lips

16 First Aid – Anaphylactic Shock
Stay with the person who has been stung by a bee or wasp for 5-10 minutes to observe for signs of shock. Call for medical help (911) immediately if they develop symptoms Stay until help arrives, monitor breathing and circulation

17 Insulin Shock Insulin shock occurs when the brain does not get the amount of sugar it requires. Insulin shock can occur when a diabetic patient takes too much insulin, takes a regular dose of insulin without having eaten enough or has exercised and uses up all available glucose.

18 Signs of Insulin Shock Irritable, aggressive or unusual behavior
Shaking Skin is cold and damp, sweating, pale color

19 First Aid – Insulin Shock
Give sugar (I.e. sugar, honey, fruit juice, soda with sugar, etc.) Call for medical help (911) Stay until help arrives, monitor breathing and circulation

20 Temperature Extremes Photosensitivity
Certain medications used to treat medical symptoms may make a person extra sensitive to sunlight and can cause dehydration in extreme heat.

21 Heat Exhaustion Occurs when a person begins to feel the effects of extreme heat and sunlight. Signs Pale clammy skin Profuse perspiration Extreme tiredness or weakness Headache, nausea, dizziness

22 First Aid – Heat Exhaustion
Move the person to a cooler place (shade, indoors) Cool the body Bed Rest Salt Solution (1/2 teaspoon salt in ½ glass water every 15 minutes Stay until help arrives, monitor breathing and circulation Seek medical care for extreme heat exhaustion

23 Heat Stroke Occurs when a person’s temperature control system stops working properly or fails – no perspiration to cool the body Body temperature can rise so high that brain damage and death may result

24 Signs of Heat Stroke Hot dry, red skin Very small pupils
Very high body temperature Decreased consciousness/alertness

25 First Aid – Heat Stroke CALL 911 immediately
Move person to a cooler place (indoors) Immerse in cool bath or wrap in cool, wet sheets or towels Treat for shock Stay until help arrives, monitor breathing and circulation If victim is conscious and responsive, have them sip a salt/water solution.

26 Hypothermia Occurs when a person is subjected to cold conditions over an extended period of time. Shock will occur if body is not returned to a normal temperature and the person may slip into a coma or possibly even die. May even occur on a hot day – submerged in extremely cold water for an extended period of time. Water can lower body temperature 8 times faster than air. 76 degree water temperature can cause hypothermia in as little as 20 minutes.

27 Signs of Hypothermia Shivering – uncontrollable muscle contractions designed to increase internal temperatures Decreased consciousness Weakness, decreased coordination

28 First Aid - Hypothermia
Move person to a warmer area (indoors, out of cold water, etc.) Provide warm DRY clothing and/or blankets Try to keep the person awake and conscious Call 911 Immediately Stay until help arrives, monitor breathing and circulation

29 Burns Vary in severity – depending on depth and location
face hands genitals Very young and elderly people – high risk

30 Classifications of Burns
First Degree Burn – damage to top layer of skin; red and dry; heals 5-6 days – Sunburn Second Degree Burn – damage is deeper; red with blisters, skin may look wet; very painful and slow to heal 3-4 weeks – may result in scarring Third Degree Burn – severe damage to layers of skin/tissue; life threatening; skin is brown or black; very painful or no pain because nerve endings damaged; extensive healing time is needed

31 First Aid 3rd Degree Burns 1st & 2nd Degree Burns
Call 911 immediately (notify Nurse and supervisor on call) Treat for shock Cover with DRY, STERILE dressing Elevate burn above heart level DO NOT rinse blisters with water 1st & 2nd Degree Burns Small burns – no blisters – rinse with large amounts of COOL water Cover with DRY STERILE dressing Elevate burn above heart level Notify Nurse

32 Poisoning Medications Household cleaners
Petroleum products and by-products Paint, polish, auto products Pesticides Plants Make-up, hair spray, toiletries, etc. Vitamins venom

33 Poison Absorption Ingested (swallowed) Inhaled Skin contact Eyes
Insect sting or spider bite Animal bite

34 Signs/Symptoms - Poisoning
Vomiting and/or heavy labored breathing Deep sleep Eye pupils that are very large or very small

35 Notify Nurse and on-call supervisor
First Aid - Poisoning Notify Nurse and on-call supervisor Poisons taken orally: Call 911 or Poison Control immediately Identify the poison if possible Stay until help arrives, monitor breathing and circulation DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING, unless instructed to do so by emergency technicians.

36 First Aid - Poisoning Remove clothing contaminated by the poison
Notify Nurse and on-call supervisor Skin Contact Remove clothing contaminated by the poison Flood skin with water until the burning sensation stops EYES – flush eyes with water – nose outward – 15 minutes Call 911 Stay until help arrives, monitor breathing and circulation

37 Injury to Bones Diagnosis is usually impossible without X-Rays. First aid is intended to prevent further injury or harm until they can receive medical attention.

38 Closed Fracture Injury beneath the skin; Difficult to detect without x-ray Signs Swelling Pain Deformity Discoloration/bruising

39 First Aid - Fracture Call 911 Immobilize injury Stay until help arrives, monitor breathing and circulation

40 Open Fracture Fracture associated with open wound Broken bone tears through skin More serious than closed fracture Call 911 Immobilize injury, control bleeding and protect from infection Stay until help arrives, monitor breathing and circulation

41 Sprain Injury to tendons, ligaments, or cartilage; result of forcing limb beyond the normal range of motion. Ankles Fingers Wrist Knees Must have X-Ray to rule out broken bone.

42 Signs - Sprain Swelling Tenderness Pain on motion discoloration

43 First Aid - Sprain Seek medical attention Immobilize the injury
Elevate the joint and apply cold, wet cloths or ice pack on injury during the first ½ hour after accident to slow swelling DO NOT elevate if you suspect a fracture

44 Strain Injury to the muscle; fibers may be stretched or torn – overexertion of a muscle. Rest Apply warm wet applications Ibuprofen or aspirin Seek medical attention Back strain – lie on hard, flat surface

45 Dislocation Displacement of a bone end from a joint; caused by falls or blows and may be accompanied by a fracture. Signs Swelling Pain Deformity Discoloration/bruising

46 First Aid - Dislocation
Call 911 Immobilize injury Stay until help arrives, monitor breathing and circulation

47 Insect Bites/Stings Wash with soap and water
Cold pack on area to reduce swelling/pain Place stung area below heart level (reduce circulation of venom) DO NOT try to remove stinger by squeezing or using tweezers (release more venom into blood May use hard plastic card to draw out stinger See medical attention if serious

48 Systemic Allergic Reactions
Occurs when people are allergic to poisonous bites or stings LIFE THREATENING! Pain Swelling of the throat, tongue, hands or face Difficulty breathing (wheezing) Redness or discoloration at the site Severe itching (hives, rash) Decreased consciousness

49 Other Bite Wounds Animal or Human Wash well with soap and water
Alert authorities (pet control, if animal); call nurse and supervisor on call Apply clean, dry dressing; control bleeding if necessary Practice all Universal Precautions.

50 First Aid Stay until help arrives, monitor breathing and circulation
Call 911 Treat for shock Stay until help arrives, monitor breathing and circulation

51 Seizures – First Aid Cushion head Protect from injury; move people and furniture away Loosen tight neckwear and belt Turn on side (if possible) Reassure person throughout the seizure Stay with victim and monitor breathing, circulation, and assist as needed during recovery.

52 Seizures – First Aid Most Seizures in people with known epilepsy are not medical emergencies You should call 911 for a person who is having a seizure for the first time Document Seizure on appropriate paperwork

53 Status Epilepticus Seizure activity that continues without a significant break for rest period between seizures – generally lasting 30 minutes or longer represents a life­threatening emergency Notify Nurse and call 911after 2 minutes of activity

54 Seizures DO NOT: Place anything in the mouth
Attempt to restrain movements Hold hand of victim (may crush yours)


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