5Communication Guidelines Begin communicating as soon as you approachKeep trying to communicateAsk what happenedTell the person what happenedTell the person you will helpTell the person what you are doing
6BleedingThere are approximately 4 quarts of blood in the human body.
7Control External Bleeding Place clean barrier on woundApply direct pressureMaintain direct pressure and protect the wound.Elevate unless a broken bone is suspected.If bleeding persists use a pressure point in addition to direct pressure.Call 911; Stay until help arrives, monitor breathing and circulation
8Heavy Bleeding If bleeding continues AND is life threatening, Use a tourniquet to stop the bleeding.Call 911Stay until help arrives, monitor breathing and circulationUse of a tourniquet is when you must sacrifice a limb for a life.
9Head, Neck, Back Injuries Do not move the victimKeep them calm and comfortableReport the injuryReport any unusual behaviorCall for medical help – bleeding or fluid from nose or mouth or earsStay until help arrives, monitor breathing and circulation
10Nose Bleed Usually occur when there is a blow to the nose. Apply Direct Pressure – firmly pinching the nostrils with the thumb and forefingerHave the victim tilt their head forwardDO NOT pack the nose with cotton or gauze. Ice will help reduce inflammation.
11ShockShock is not a specific disease or injury, but a physical state that is potentially fatal.It is a failure of the cardiovascular system to keep adequate blood circulating to the vital organs of the body.Shock is most commonly caused by a loss of blood, exposure to an allergen, or poorly managed diabetes.
12Signs of Traumatic Shock Acting restless but feels weakUsually unable to explain symptoms to youConfused behaviorVery fast or very slowbreathing and pulse rateCool, moist skinWeakness in arms and legs
13First Aid - Shock Keep victim calm and quiet Have them lie on their back – feet slightly elevatedMaintain normal body temperatureCall for medical help (911)Stay until help arrives, monitor breathing and circulation
14Anaphylactic ShockCaused by a severe allergy (insect stings, usually wasp or bee stings, or injections or reactions of some medications).Medical help must be obtained immediately because the condition can only be treated with medication.
15Signs of Anaphylactic Shock Flushing, itching, or burning skinHives or swellingDifficulty breathing, wheezingSwelling around mouth, tongue, lips
16First Aid – Anaphylactic Shock Stay with the person who has been stung by a bee or wasp for 5-10 minutes to observe for signs of shock.Call for medical help (911) immediately if they develop symptomsStay until help arrives, monitor breathing and circulation
17Insulin ShockInsulin shock occurs when the brain does not get the amount of sugar it requires.Insulin shock can occur when a diabetic patient takes too much insulin, takes a regular dose of insulin without having eaten enough or has exercised and uses up all available glucose.
18Signs of Insulin Shock Irritable, aggressive or unusual behavior ShakingSkin is cold and damp, sweating, pale color
19First Aid – Insulin Shock Give sugar (I.e. sugar, honey, fruit juice, soda with sugar, etc.)Call for medical help (911)Stay until help arrives, monitor breathing and circulation
20Temperature Extremes Photosensitivity Certain medications used to treat medical symptoms may make a person extra sensitive to sunlight and can cause dehydration in extreme heat.
21Heat ExhaustionOccurs when a person begins to feel the effects of extreme heat and sunlight.SignsPale clammy skinProfuse perspirationExtreme tiredness or weaknessHeadache, nausea, dizziness
22First Aid – Heat Exhaustion Move the person to a cooler place (shade, indoors)Cool the bodyBed RestSalt Solution (1/2 teaspoon salt in ½ glass water every 15 minutesStay until help arrives, monitor breathing and circulationSeek medical care for extreme heat exhaustion
23Heat StrokeOccurs when a person’s temperature control system stops working properly or fails – no perspiration to cool the bodyBody temperature can rise so high that brain damage and death may result
24Signs of Heat Stroke Hot dry, red skin Very small pupils Very high body temperatureDecreased consciousness/alertness
25First Aid – Heat Stroke CALL 911 immediately Move person to a cooler place (indoors)Immerse in cool bath or wrap in cool, wet sheets or towelsTreat for shockStay until help arrives, monitor breathing and circulationIf victim is conscious and responsive, have them sip a salt/water solution.
26HypothermiaOccurs when a person is subjected to cold conditions over an extended period of time. Shock will occur if body is not returned to a normal temperature and the person may slip into a coma or possibly even die.May even occur on a hot day – submerged in extremely cold water for an extended period of time. Water can lower body temperature 8 times faster than air. 76 degree water temperature can cause hypothermia in as little as 20 minutes.
27Signs of HypothermiaShivering – uncontrollable muscle contractions designed to increase internal temperaturesDecreased consciousnessWeakness, decreased coordination
28First Aid - Hypothermia Move person to a warmer area (indoors, out of cold water, etc.)Provide warm DRY clothing and/or blanketsTry to keep the person awake and consciousCall 911 ImmediatelyStay until help arrives, monitor breathing and circulation
29Burns Vary in severity – depending on depth and location facehandsgenitalsVery young and elderly people – high risk
30Classifications of Burns First Degree Burn – damage to top layer of skin; red and dry; heals 5-6 days – SunburnSecond Degree Burn – damage is deeper; red with blisters, skin may look wet; very painful and slow to heal 3-4 weeks – may result in scarringThird Degree Burn – severe damage to layers of skin/tissue; life threatening; skin is brown or black; very painful or no pain because nerve endings damaged; extensive healing time is needed
31First Aid 3rd Degree Burns 1st & 2nd Degree Burns Call 911 immediately (notify Nurse and supervisor on call)Treat for shockCover with DRY, STERILE dressingElevate burn above heart levelDO NOT rinse blisters with water1st & 2nd Degree BurnsSmall burns – no blisters – rinse with large amounts of COOL waterCover with DRY STERILE dressingElevate burn above heart levelNotify Nurse
32Poisoning Medications Household cleaners Petroleum products and by-productsPaint, polish, auto productsPesticidesPlantsMake-up, hair spray, toiletries, etc.Vitaminsvenom
34Signs/Symptoms - Poisoning Vomiting and/or heavy labored breathingDeep sleepEye pupils that are very large or very small
35Notify Nurse and on-call supervisor First Aid - PoisoningNotify Nurse and on-call supervisorPoisons taken orally:Call 911 or Poison Control immediatelyIdentify the poison if possibleStay until help arrives, monitor breathing and circulationDO NOT INDUCE VOMITING, unless instructed to do so by emergency technicians.
36First Aid - Poisoning Remove clothing contaminated by the poison Notify Nurse and on-call supervisorSkin ContactRemove clothing contaminated by the poisonFlood skin with water until the burning sensation stopsEYES – flush eyes with water – nose outward – 15 minutesCall 911Stay until help arrives, monitor breathing and circulation
37Injury to BonesDiagnosis is usually impossible without X-Rays. First aid is intended to prevent further injury or harm until they can receive medical attention.
38Closed FractureInjury beneath the skin; Difficult to detect without x-raySignsSwellingPainDeformityDiscoloration/bruising
39First Aid - FractureCall 911Immobilize injuryStay until help arrives, monitor breathing and circulation
40Open FractureFracture associated with open woundBroken bone tears through skinMore serious than closed fractureCall 911Immobilize injury, control bleeding and protect from infectionStay until help arrives, monitor breathing and circulation
41SprainInjury to tendons, ligaments, or cartilage; result of forcing limb beyond the normal range of motion.AnklesFingersWristKneesMust have X-Ray to rule out broken bone.
42Signs - SprainSwellingTendernessPain on motiondiscoloration
43First Aid - Sprain Seek medical attention Immobilize the injury Elevate the joint and apply cold, wet cloths or ice pack on injury during the first ½ hour after accident to slow swellingDO NOT elevate if you suspect a fracture
44StrainInjury to the muscle; fibers may be stretched or torn – overexertion of a muscle.RestApply warm wet applicationsIbuprofen or aspirinSeek medical attentionBack strain – lie on hard, flat surface
45DislocationDisplacement of a bone end from a joint; caused by falls or blows and may be accompanied by a fracture.SignsSwellingPainDeformityDiscoloration/bruising
46First Aid - Dislocation Call 911Immobilize injuryStay until help arrives, monitor breathing and circulation
47Insect Bites/Stings Wash with soap and water Cold pack on area to reduce swelling/painPlace stung area below heart level (reduce circulation of venom)DO NOT try to remove stinger by squeezing or using tweezers (release more venom into bloodMay use hard plastic card to draw out stingerSee medicalattention if serious
48Systemic Allergic Reactions Occurs when people are allergic to poisonous bites or stingsLIFE THREATENING!PainSwelling of the throat, tongue, hands or faceDifficulty breathing (wheezing)Redness or discoloration at the siteSevere itching (hives, rash)Decreased consciousness
49Other Bite Wounds Animal or Human Wash well with soap and water Alert authorities (pet control, if animal); call nurse and supervisor on callApply clean, dry dressing; control bleeding if necessaryPractice all Universal Precautions.
50First Aid Stay until help arrives, monitor breathing and circulation Call 911Treat for shockStay until help arrives, monitor breathing and circulation
51Seizures – First AidCushion headProtect from injury; move people and furniture awayLoosen tight neckwear and beltTurn on side (if possible)Reassure person throughout the seizureStay with victim and monitor breathing, circulation, and assist as needed during recovery.
52Seizures – First AidMost Seizures in people with known epilepsy are not medical emergenciesYou should call 911 for a person who is having a seizure for the first timeDocument Seizure on appropriate paperwork
53Status EpilepticusSeizure activity that continues without a significant break for rest period between seizures – generally lasting 30 minutes or longerrepresents a lifethreatening emergencyNotify Nurse and call 911after 2 minutes of activity
54Seizures DO NOT: Place anything in the mouth Attempt to restrain movementsHold hand of victim (may crush yours)