# Scientific Skills and Processes. 1. OBSERVING Stating the properties or characteristics of an object or event.

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Scientific Skills and Processes

1. OBSERVING Stating the properties or characteristics of an object or event.

Kinds of Observation Physical Description Measuring or Counting

2. COMPARING Recognizing similarities and differences in the properties of objects and living things observed.

3. CLASSIFYING Process of arranging, grouping or sorting things according to some observable properties they possess.

Can you group the following animals according to their properties?

4. INFERRING Logical mental process wherein one makes explanations based on observations.

What can you say about the picture? OBSERVING VS. INFERRING The sky appears red. The sun is going down the horizon. There are four people in the picture. It is near dusk. The four people are in a resort island.

OBSERVING VS. INFERRING

5. PREDICTING Process of estimating or forecasting a future event or trend based on previous experiences or observation

Which figure should come next?

Process of predicting data or events within the graph of the given data Process of predicting data or events beyond the scope of the given graph of the data

What is the distance when the time is 4 seconds?

What is the distance when the time is 12 seconds?

6. MEASURING Process of quantifying observations or properties of objects

MEASUREMENT COMPARING A QUANTITY TO AN APPROPRIATE SCALE OR STANDARD Closeness of a measured value to the true value Degree of agreement between several values obtained under the same conditions

Neither accurate nor precise Given 3 darts:

Precise but not accurate

Both accurate and precise

How is the accuracy and precision of measurements determined?

Given the following experimental data for the density of water: Density (g/ml) 10.96 20.99 31.00 41.02 If the accepted value for the density of water is 1.00g/ml, which measurement is the most ACCURATE?

Density (g/ml) 10.96 20.99 31.00 41.02 Average: 0.99 g/ml Get the average.

7. Formulating the Problem Be stated beginning with the words Why and How. Contain the subject of the research. Indicate the variable/s being tested and the corresponding responding variable/s Give its readers an idea of what the experiment is about.

8. Making a Hypothesis An educated guess to a problem Example: What causes the spoilage of food? Why does the heartbeat of a person vary?

9. CONTROLLING VARIABLES Factors that affect the behavior or properties of an object or event

Example: What conditions affect the growth of plants? Amount of fertilizer Type of soil Amount of water Amount of sunlight Kind of plant specie These are all VARIABLES !

KINDS OF VARIABLES MANIPULATED CONTROLLED RESPONDING

Example: How does the amount of fertilizer affect the growth of a tomato plant? Manipulated Variable Responding Variable Controlled Variable

10. ORGANIZING DATA PRESENTATION OF THE DATA FOR ANALYSIS

Pictorial representation of data

Making a data table Make a data table Identify the variables Foliage/leaves  broom, roofing Nuts/fruits  food, drinks, husks Roots  disinfectant, medicine, driftwood Cellulose  paper, plywood Lumber  toys, posts, fuel A group of students made a survey of the products derived from coconut trees. They came up with the following data:

Products obtained from parts of the coconut tree Part of the coconut treeProduct Foliage/leavesbroom, roofing Nuts/fruitsfood, drinks, husks Rootsdisinfectant, medicine, driftwood Cellulosepaper, plywood Lumbertoys, posts, fuel

Interpreting tables and graphs

Interpreting tables Number of marblesLevels of water 050 152 254 356 662 968 1376 As the number of marbles increases, the level of water also increases.

Interpreting graphs

11. DERIVING CONCLUSIONS A STATEMENT OF THE ANSWER TO THE PROBLEM OF THE EXPERIMENT

Bread Type Condition ofResult MoistureSunlightTemperature A Moistened Exposed Near the window Plenty of molds grew BDryNo molds grew Example: Given the following data table:

Bread Type Condition ofResult MoistureSunlightTemperature A Moistened Exposed Near the window Plenty of molds grew BDryNo molds grew Identify the manipulated variable.

Bread Type Condition ofResult MoistureSunlightTemperature A Moistened Exposed Near the window Plenty of molds grew BDryNo molds grew Identify the responding variable.

Bread Type Condition ofResult MoistureSunlightTemperature A Moistened Exposed Near the window Plenty of molds grew BDryNo molds grew State the best problem for the experiment How does moisture affect the appearance of molds in bread?

Bread Type Condition ofResult MoistureSunlightTemperature A Moistened Exposed Near the window Plenty of molds grew BDryNo molds grew What is the conclusion of the experiment

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