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Section 2 Aquatic Ecosystems Chapter 21 Objectives  Describe the major aquatic ecosystems.  Identify major biotic and abiotic factors associated with.

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Presentation on theme: "Section 2 Aquatic Ecosystems Chapter 21 Objectives  Describe the major aquatic ecosystems.  Identify major biotic and abiotic factors associated with."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Section 2 Aquatic Ecosystems Chapter 21 Objectives  Describe the major aquatic ecosystems.  Identify major biotic and abiotic factors associated with different aquatic ecosystems.  Compare the ocean and freshwater zones.

3 Section 2 Aquatic Ecosystems Chapter 21 Ocean Zones  Photic zone in the ocean receives light (top 100 m)  Water absorbs light  Aphotic zone does not  Most of the ocean  Photosynthesis does not occur  Other zones of the ocean are defined based on their relative locations.

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5 Section 2 Aquatic Ecosystems Chapter 21 Ocean Zones, continued  The Intertidal Zone  Area of shoreline covered in water at high tide and exposed during low tide.  Organisms must be able to tolerate drying and pounding by waves. Crabs, clams, mussels, oysters, sea anemones, sea stars

6 Chapter 21 Intertidal Zone Section 2 Aquatic Ecosystems

7 Chapter 21 Ocean Zones, continued  The Neritic Zone  The neritic zone receives nutrients from the bottom of the ocean and from land. It is the ocean’s richest zone in terms of the number of species and individuals. Plankton, fish, sea turtles

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9 Chapter 21 Neritic Zone Section 2 Aquatic Ecosystems

10 Chapter 21 Ocean Zones, continued  The Oceanic Zone  Deepest parts of the ocean with fewer species.  Production in the oceanic zone is limited by a shortage of nutrients. Photic zone producers: protists, bacteria, plants, invertebrates. Photic zone consumers: fish, mammals such as whales, large invertebrates. Aphotic producers: chemosynthetic bacteria (feed tubeworms) Aphotic consumers: squid, fish

11 Adaptations: Large eyes Sensitive vision Barbed arms with photophores webbing

12 Chapter 21 Oceanic Zone Section 2 Aquatic Ecosystems

13 Chapter 21 Ocean Zones, continued  Estuaries  Estuaries are very productive areas where rivers and streams flow into the sea.  Variations in temperature and salinity  Impacted by tide changes

14 Section 2 Aquatic Ecosystems Chapter 21 Freshwater Zones  Lakes and Ponds  Oligotrophic lakes are clear and lacking in nutrients.  Eutrophic lakes are rich in nutrients and are often murky.  Both contain fish, otter, muskrat, ducks, loons, turtles, snakes, salamanders, frogs.

15 Chapter 21 Three Lake Zones Section 2 Aquatic Ecosystems

16 Chapter 21 Freshwater Zones, continued  Rivers and Streams  Rivers and streams are bodies of water that flow down an elevation gradient within a watershed. Insect larvae attach to rocks, fish adapted to swim upstream against powerful currents. StreamRiver

17 Section 2 Aquatic Ecosystems Chapter 21 Freshwater Zones, continued  Freshwater Wetlands  Freshwater wetlands are areas of land, such as marshes and swamps, that are covered with fresh water for at least part of each year. Marshes: nonwoody plants (cattails) Swamp: woody plants  Most productive freshwater ecosystem. Birds, fish, mammals, amphibians, invertebrates, reptiles. US wetlands have large predators like American alligator, American crocodile, the Florida panther, the whooping crane.

18 Chapter 21 Freshwater Biomes Section 2 Aquatic Ecosystems

19 Freshwater Wetlands  Significance  Stopover for migrating birds  Protect spawning organisms like fish  Filter pollutants out of water  Flood control Everglades National Park

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21 Multiple Choice 1. Why are estuaries more productive than most other biomes? A. Estuaries contain vast coniferous forests. B. Estuaries have shallow, nutrient-laden water. C. Estuaries get more sunlight than other biomes. D. The majority of land on Earth is covered by estuaries. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 21

22 Multiple Choice, continued 1. Why are estuaries more productive than most other biomes? A. Estuaries contain vast coniferous forests. B. Estuaries have shallow, nutrient-laden water. C. Estuaries get more sunlight than other biomes. D. The majority of land on Earth is covered by estuaries. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 21

23 Multiple Choice, continued 2. Which of the following characterizes the neritic zone of the ocean? F. It receives little sunlight. G. It supports very few species. H. It is exposed to the air by low tide. J. It receives nutrients washed from land. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 21

24 Multiple Choice, continued 2. Which of the following characterizes the neritic zone of the ocean? F. It receives little sunlight. G. It supports very few species. H. It is exposed to the air by low tide. J. It receives nutrients washed from land. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 21

25 Multiple Choice, continued 3. Which of the following is true of temperate deciduous forests? A. They are found near the equator. B. They have the lowest rainfall of any biome. C. They undergo seasonal changes in temperature. D. They have the highest species richness of any biome. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 21

26 Multiple Choice, continued 3. Which of the following is true of temperate deciduous forests? A. They are found near the equator. B. They have the lowest rainfall of any biome. C. They undergo seasonal changes in temperature. D. They have the highest species richness of any biome. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 21

27 Multiple Choice, continued 4. Which of the following best describes the water of all eutrophic lakes? F. cold G. salty H. murky J. lifeless Standardized Test Prep Chapter 21

28 Multiple Choice, continued 4. Which of the following best describes the water of all eutrophic lakes? F. cold G. salty H. murky J. lifeless Standardized Test Prep Chapter 21

29 Multiple Choice, continued Use the graph below to answer question 5. The graph shows the relative temperature, precipitation, and soil nutrient content in a specific biome. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 21

30 Multiple Choice, continued 5. Which of the following biomes is best represented by this graph? A. tundra B. desert C. tropical rain forest D. temperate grassland Standardized Test Prep Chapter 21

31 Multiple Choice, continued 5. Which of the following biomes is best represented by this graph? A. tundra B. desert C. tropical rain forest D. temperate grassland Standardized Test Prep Chapter 21

32 Multiple Choice, continued Complete the following analogy: 6. grasses : savanna :: coniferous trees : F. taiga G. tundra H. desert J. temperate deciduous forest Standardized Test Prep Chapter 21

33 Multiple Choice, continued Complete the following analogy: 6. grasses : savanna :: coniferous trees : F. taiga G. tundra H. desert J. temperate deciduous forest Standardized Test Prep Chapter 21

34 Multiple Choice, continued Use the graph below to answer question 7. The graph ranks several types of biomes in terms of their relative productivity. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 21

35 Multiple Choice, continued 7. If a scientist needed to add a bar representing the temperate grassland biome to this graph, where should the bar be placed? A. to the left of desert B. between savanna and estuary C. between estuary and tropical rain forest D. to the right of tropical rain forest Standardized Test Prep Chapter 22

36 Multiple Choice, continued 7. If a scientist needed to add a bar representing the temperate grassland biome to this graph, where should the bar be placed? A. to the left of desert B. between savanna and estuary C. between estuary and tropical rain forest D. to the right of tropical rain forest Standardized Test Prep Chapter 22

37 Short Response Biomes are very large terrestrial ecosystems that contain a number of smaller but related ecosystems. Describe how the major biomes are characterized. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 21

38 Short Response, continued Biomes are very large terrestrial ecosystems that contain a number of smaller but related ecosystems. Describe how the major biomes are characterized. Answer: The major biomes are distinguished by abiotic factors and by the presence of characteristic plants and animals. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 21

39 Standardized Test Prep Chapter 21 Extended Response Base your answers to parts A & B on the information below. Ecologists recognize the following ecological zones in the ocean: photic, aphotic, intertidal, neritic, oceanic, pelagic, and benthic. Part A Describe the factors used as a basis for distinguishing the zones. Part B Relate these factors to the types of organisms that inhabit each zone.

40 Standardized Test Prep Chapter 21 Extended Response, continued Answer: Part A Factors used as a basis for distinguishing the ecological zones of the ocean are depth, distance from shore, and penetration of sunlight. Part B Student responses should explain that the ocean can be divided into zones along a vertical axis on the basis of light penetration (photic and aphotic zones) or nearness to the bottom (benthic and pelagic zones), or along a horizontal axis on the basis of distance from shorelines (intertidal, neritic, and oceanic zones). Responses should also describe typical organisms and adaptations for each of these zones.


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