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Stabilization Ponds CE - 370. General Characteristics Quiescent and diked Quiescent and diked Wastewater enters the pond Wastewater enters the pond Organic.

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Presentation on theme: "Stabilization Ponds CE - 370. General Characteristics Quiescent and diked Quiescent and diked Wastewater enters the pond Wastewater enters the pond Organic."— Presentation transcript:

1 Stabilization Ponds CE - 370

2 General Characteristics Quiescent and diked Quiescent and diked Wastewater enters the pond Wastewater enters the pond Organic matter is bio-oxidized Organic matter is bio-oxidized End products of microbial activities include: End products of microbial activities include: CO 2 CO 2 NH 3 NH 3 SO 4 -2 SO 4 -2 PO 4 -3 PO 4 -3 New microbial cells New microbial cells Algal population uses CO 2, SO 4 -2 and PO 4 -3 and sunlight to produce O 2, new algal cells and end products Algal population uses CO 2, SO 4 -2 and PO 4 -3 and sunlight to produce O 2, new algal cells and end products To further improve the quality of the pond effluent, algal growth must be removed To further improve the quality of the pond effluent, algal growth must be removed

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4 Classifications of Ponds According to O 2 profile, ponds are classified into: According to O 2 profile, ponds are classified into: Aerobic (O 2 throughout its depth) Aerobic (O 2 throughout its depth) Anaerobic (no O 2 throughout its depth) Anaerobic (no O 2 throughout its depth) Facultative (O 2 in upper depth and no O 2 in lower depth) Facultative (O 2 in upper depth and no O 2 in lower depth) Most of ponds are facultative Most of ponds are facultative Loaded higher than aerobic ponds Loaded higher than aerobic ponds Amount of O 2 in facultative ponds depends on: Amount of O 2 in facultative ponds depends on: Organic loading Organic loading Sunlight intensity Sunlight intensity

5 Mechanism During night During night Photosynthesis ceases after sunset Photosynthesis ceases after sunset Production of O 2 stops Production of O 2 stops Dissolved O 2 deceases due to microbial and some of algal populations that use O 2 Dissolved O 2 deceases due to microbial and some of algal populations that use O 2 During day During day Sun rises and photosynthesis starts Sun rises and photosynthesis starts Dissolved O 2 increase Dissolved O 2 increase Maximum O 2 occurs during middle of the day Maximum O 2 occurs during middle of the day During summer During summer O 2 is between 2 and 3 mg/l during night O 2 is between 2 and 3 mg/l during night O 2 is between 14 to 16 mg/l during the day O 2 is between 14 to 16 mg/l during the day

6 Mechanism During cloudy days, anaerobic condition may occur throughout the depth of the facultative pond During cloudy days, anaerobic condition may occur throughout the depth of the facultative pond As algal and microbial cells die, they settle to the bottom of the pond and undergo anaerobic decomposition As algal and microbial cells die, they settle to the bottom of the pond and undergo anaerobic decomposition Sludge accumulates very slow (only several millimeters per year) Sludge accumulates very slow (only several millimeters per year) One third to one half of influent organic carbon is synthesized into microbial and algal cells that leave with the pond effluent One third to one half of influent organic carbon is synthesized into microbial and algal cells that leave with the pond effluent Polishing treatment might be necessary to improve the quality of the effluent Polishing treatment might be necessary to improve the quality of the effluent

7 Mechanism BOD removal BOD removal Filtered effluent = 80 to 90 % Filtered effluent = 80 to 90 % Unfiltered effluent = 45 to 65 % Unfiltered effluent = 45 to 65 %

8 Characteristics of Facultative Ponds Depth is 0.91 to 2.44 m Depth is 0.91 to 2.44 m If pond is to be converted to aerobic (in future), then it should be deeper to accommodate aerators If pond is to be converted to aerobic (in future), then it should be deeper to accommodate aerators Shape is usually Shape is usually Circular Circular Rectangular Rectangular For single pond or ponds in parallel For single pond or ponds in parallel Organic loading = 28 to 39.2 kg BOD 5 /ha-day Organic loading = 28 to 39.2 kg BOD 5 /ha-day For ponds in series For ponds in series Organic loading of first pond = 84.1 to 89.7 kg BOD 5 /ha- day Organic loading of first pond = 84.1 to 89.7 kg BOD 5 /ha- day Organic loading of downstream pond = 28 to 39.2 kg BOD 5 /ha-day Organic loading of downstream pond = 28 to 39.2 kg BOD 5 /ha-day

9 Design of Facultative Pond The volume a facultative pond treating municipal wastewater can be determined by: The volume a facultative pond treating municipal wastewater can be determined by: V = pond volume, ft 2 (m 2 ) V = pond volume, ft 2 (m 2 ) C = 4.7  for USCS units and 3.5  for SI units C = 4.7  for USCS units and 3.5  for SI units Q = flow, gal/day (liter/day) Q = flow, gal/day (liter/day) S i = ultimate influent BOD or COD, mg/l S i = ultimate influent BOD or COD, mg/l f = algal toxicity factor, f = 1 for municipal and many industrial wastewaters f = algal toxicity factor, f = 1 for municipal and many industrial wastewaters f’ = sulfide or other immediate chemical oxygen demand; f’ = 1 for SO 4 -2 equivalent ion concentration of less than 500 mg/l f’ = sulfide or other immediate chemical oxygen demand; f’ = 1 for SO 4 -2 equivalent ion concentration of less than 500 mg/l  = temperature coefficient  = temperature coefficient T = average water temperature for the pond during winter months,  C T = average water temperature for the pond during winter months,  C

10 Design of Facultative Pond The value of  ranges between to The value of  ranges between to Recommended value of  is Recommended value of  is For  of and depth of 5 ft (1.52 m), the area of pond can be calculated from: For  of and depth of 5 ft (1.52 m), the area of pond can be calculated from: A = area o pond, acres (ha), for a depth of 5 ft + 1 ft of sludge storage (1.5 m m) A = area o pond, acres (ha), for a depth of 5 ft + 1 ft of sludge storage (1.5 m m) C =  for USCS units and  for SI units C =  for USCS units and  for SI units Q = flow, MGD (MLD) Q = flow, MGD (MLD)

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12 Example 18.1

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