Presentation on theme: "Energy Sources Science with Mr. Nahm. Hydro power Early source of power water wheel The movement of water causes the water wheel to rotate along with."— Presentation transcript:
Energy Sources Science with Mr. Nahm
Hydro power Early source of power water wheel The movement of water causes the water wheel to rotate along with the wheel’s axle.
The spinning axle can power various different machines.
A Dam is made in a river, creating a lake Water flows through the dam to a turbine and out into a river again
The Good Can create electricity when you need it and scale back when you don’t Doesn’t pollute the air Creates large body of water which can also be used for farming
The Bad Destroys ecosystems – The dry land and its plants, and animals are all under water – The shallow water is replaced with a deep lake Cannot be used all the time for water would run out Requires large areas of land and lots of initial investment
Uranium is a radioactive material that is mined The uranium produces heat and heats up water water turns to steam steam turns the turbine creating electricity
The Good Produce electricity whenever you need it Can produce very reliable energy Relatively inexpensive electricity Can build a power plant almost anywhere
The Bad Potential for disaster – Chernobyl – Fukushima Mining destroys land and ecosystems Disposal of radioactive wastes – Wastes last for over 100 years – Storage concerns – St. Louis St. Louis Post Dispatch NPR
The term “sol” means “sun” Solar power is power from the sun. Passive – Use sunlight to warm a room or building Active – More advanced – Can create electricity
Passive Solar Power Have large windows on the southern side of a building to let the winter sunlight in.
Passive Water Heaters Uses solar energy to heat a home’s water
Photovoltaic Cell (PV Cell) Electricity-producing devices made of semiconductor materials. Can produce electricity only during the day Clouds, rain, snow, debris such as leaves can all block sunlight Some places like Nevada get lots of sun, Nevada gets 292 days of sunlight a year.
Concentrating Solar Power Energy from the sun is focused in small area to heat up liquid (normally oil) which in turn heats of water to produce steam which will turn a turbine to produce electricity.
The Good Solar Power doesn’t pollute Solar Power can be installed in remote locations and can power a single house, or have power go into a grid. Solar panels give you power during the day when demand for electricity is highest
The Bad Solar power will not work at night without batteries, which are expensive and require upkeep Solar power will not work year round everywhere, like Alaska where they don’t get as much sunlight. Solar power is expensive for how much electricity is initially produced.
Biomass from biological materials – Renewable energy source Most commonly trees, crops, alcohol fuels, garbage, and landfill gasses.
Biomass Energy Can be done on small or large scale – (small) burning wood in a fireplace – (large) ethanol power plant Is done to supplement gasoline – In missouri 10% ethanol blend – Potential problem – Ethanol burns hotter than gasoline
Controversy In % of corn went to produce ethanol because of government mandate Most goes to feed livestock Less than 9% is used for human consumption either as corn or as corn syrup in food and drink
Corn power vs. fossil fuels You can keep growing corn, whereas however much oil is on Earth now is as much as there will ever be. Corn can be turned into ethanol without destroying new ecosystems Corn eases our dependence on foreign countries.
Facts It takes about 26.1 pounds of corn to create a gallon of ethanol Ethanol costs about $1.74 a gallon Burning firewood can be up to 10 times less expensive then oil Burning firewood can be hazardous to your health
The Good Biomass is renewable Biomass can get a second use out of scrap or waste materials Biomass is readily available anywhere in the world
The Bad Biomass pollutes the air Using biomass for fuel can cause prices of things like corn to go up. Biomass can make pollute water
The Babylonians and Chinese were using wind power to pump water for irrigating crops 4,000 years ago, and sailing boats were around long before that. Wind power was used in the Middle Ages, in Europe, to grind corn, which is where the term "windmill" comes from.
Wind Missouri has most of its wind farms in the northwestern corner of the state
Wind Farms Wind turbines do require maintenance – Good paying job, must not be afraid of heights, small spaces, working with high voltage electricity
The Future Potential for gaining wind movement from alternative areas, such as by highways
The Good Wind is free, wind farms need no fuel. Produces no waste or greenhouse gases. The land beneath can usually still be used for farming.
The Bad The wind is not always predictable - some days have no wind. Best areas for wind farms are often near the coast, where land is expensive. Can kill birds - migrating flocks tend to like strong winds. Splat! (the American Bird Conservancy estimates that US wind turbines kill between 75,000 and 275,000 birds per year) Noisy. A wind generator makes a constant, low, "swooshing" noise day and night, which can drive you nuts.
Coal, Oil, and Natural Gas
Fossil Fuels Formed hundreds of millions of years ago. – Formed from plant materials in swamp lands, that were eventually covered by rocks and compressed for millions of years
Coal Coal is a black rock that must be mined, made up mostly of carbon. Is moved by train, ship, or even pipeline – When moved by pipeline, is broken up and moved in water as a thick sludge, and then dried once it gets to its destination Power’s most of St. Louis – Have 30 days of coal stored in case of an emergency
Oil Oil is drilled and pumped out of the ground – Largest reserves under the ocean, in the artic, and in the middle east Includes gasoline Necessary to make plastics & even some medicines
Natural Gas Colorless odorless flammable gas found underground. – Strong rotten egg like smell added after removed from ground, so you can identify if there is a leak Largest underground storage in the U.S. is in St. Louis. -- north of St. Louis City – In natural cave, level is regulated by pumping water in and out of cave system
Fracking Fracking or Hydraulic Fracturing is a method of extracting Natural Gas from the Earth. – “fracking involves pumping millions of gallons of chemically treated water into deep shale formations at pressures of 9000 pounds per square inch or more. This fluid cracks the shale or widens existing cracks, freeing hydrocarbons to flow toward the well.” – Known to cause Earthquakes – Drilling produces millions of gallons of contaminated water.
Burning Fossil Fuels Burning fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide, and other gasses into the atmosphere Pollutes the land and water too Powers around 85% of the U.S. – Electric power plants – Cars – Boats – Trains – Engines of all types
The Good Can produce electricity whenever you need it Reliable technology Inexpensive electricity
The Bad Pollutes the air, land, and water Requires mining (coal), drilling (oil & natural gas) Occasionally there are oil spills which devastate ecosystems
The term Geo means “the earth” The term thermal means “heat” – Geothermal is energy we get from the heat of the Earth It is a renewable energy Started thousands of years ago, by taking advantage of hot springs for heat
Geothermal Electricity To produce electricity from Geothermal heat water is pumped deep underground to where it is hot Hot water, or steam comes back up and turns a turbine.
Iceland Known as “the land of fire and ice” – 90% of people heat their homes from geothermal energy
Heating and Cooling your home Summer – Water is pumped into pipes that go into the ground and is cooled to 58 degrees, that water cools the air that is pumped throughout the house Winter – Water is pumped into pipes that go into the ground and is heated to 58 degrees, that water warms the air that is pumped throughout the house
The Good Renewable energy source Can both heat and cool a home Low maintenance for power plant or home heating and cooling
The Bad Only available for power plants in certain locations Over time hot spots can cool and become less effective Can release poisonous gasses such as sulfur dioxide and silica
Review Which sources are renewable? Hydro WindNuclear GeothermalSolar Biomass Fossil FuelsHydrogen