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Solar Energy Presented By: Isah Adamu Bazuwa (099271) Sani khalil (118312)

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Presentation on theme: "Solar Energy Presented By: Isah Adamu Bazuwa (099271) Sani khalil (118312)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Solar Energy Presented By: Isah Adamu Bazuwa (099271) Sani khalil (118312)

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3 WHAT IS SOLAR ENERGY? Radiant light and heat from the sun. Solar energy is the energy that comes from the sun. Solar energy can be used as a source of heat and light and can be used to generate electricity.

4  Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive solar or active solar depending on the way they capture, convert and distribute solar energy.passive solaractive solar  Active solar: techniques include the use of photovoltaic panels and solar thermal collectors to harness the energy.solar thermal  use a mechanical system (usually a pump or fan) to distribute heat.  Passive solar: techniques include orienting a building to the Sun, selecting materials with favorable thermal mass or light dispersing properties, and designing spaces that naturally circulate air.thermal massnaturally circulate air  No mechanical systems are used to convert to heat energy

5 SOLAR ENERGY POWER PLA NTS  There are two ways to use solar energy to generate electricity  Photovoltaic: The direct conversion of sunlight to electricity  Thermal: The use of heat to generate electricity

6 A Photovoltaic Solar Power contains:  Solar Arrays  Inverter  Transformer A Thermal Solar Power Plant contains:  Collector Field  Turbine  Generator  Transformer

7 Using solar energy to cool houses  Passive solar designs can be used to reduce heat input in summer.  Overhangs, awnings, and trees can be used to block the sun.  Could provide a typical house with 60% of its cooling needs.

8 Using solar energy to generate high temperature heat and electricity Solar thermal systems  concentrate sunlight and raise water or oil to a very high temperature.  Heat can be used directly or to make steam for electricity.  Systems use heliostats or other types of reflectors (parabolic dishes) to concentrate sunlight. Solar cookers used in developing countries to replace fuel wood for cooking.

9 One of the world's largest solar parabolic dishes at the Ben-Gurion National Solar Energy Center in Israel.Ben-Gurion National Solar Energy CenterIsrael

10 Using solar to make electricity directly  Can be done using photovoltaic cells.  Made of thin silicon wafers usually enriched with boron or lithium.  A DC current is produced when sunlight strikes them.  They are strung together in a panel and a number of panels are placed on the roof.

11 Inverter  A power inverter, or inverter, is an electrical device that changes direct current (DC) to alternative current (AC.  the converted AC can be at any required voltage and frequency with the use of appropriate transformers, switching, and control circuits.transformers

12 HOW A PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLAR SYSTEM WORKS The sun illuminates the solar cells in the PV Array, which convert the energy in the sunlight into electricity. The electricity goes into an inverter and into the power lines to your home. PV Array Inverter

13 PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER PLANTS Scottsdale Covered Parking, Fixed Photovoltaic panels. Prescott Airport, Single Axis, Tilted Tracker Single Axis and High Concentration Photovoltaic.

14 HOW A SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANT WORKS  Parabolic (trough) mirrors can focus the sun at 30 to 60 times its normal intensity on a receiver pipe located along the focal line of the trough.

15  Synthetic oil captures this heat as it circulates through the pipe, reaching temperatures as high as 750ºF. The hot oil is pumped through a heat exchanger on the power production side of the plant to produce steam.  Electricity is produced in a conventional steam turbine/generator

16  The power cycle is completed with the condensing of the steam through a cooling tower and then pumping it back through the heat exchanger connected to the solar energy collection field.

17 SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANTS 10 MW Solar II Experimental Power Plant, California

18 25 kW Dish/Stirling Engine System, Arizona

19 350 MW Parabolic Trough Power Plant, California

20 Every second 657 million tons of hydrogen are converted to 653 million tons of helium in our sun. The missing 4 million tons are converted to light and heat energy via Einstein’s E=MC 2 equation and radiated into space. At an average distance of 93 million miles from the sun, the earth collects approximately 4 lbs. of total energy, which supports life on earth as we know it.

21 For every kWh of electricity generated by solar energy, the following emissions are avoided since that kWh need not be generated from a fossil fuel power plant. In one year, the approximate avoided emissions in lbs/year are: SOLAR POWER PLANT SIZE CO 2 NO X SO X PARTICULATES 1 kW2, kW25, kW258, MW2,580,

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23 Solar Boilers


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