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CHAPTER 4 Cells and Energy. 4.1 CHEMICAL ENERGY AND ATP.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 4 Cells and Energy. 4.1 CHEMICAL ENERGY AND ATP."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER 4 Cells and Energy

2 4.1 CHEMICAL ENERGY AND ATP

3 ATP  All cells need chemical energy.  Molecules in food store chemical energy in their bonds.  When bonds in food you consume are broken, the energy released is used to make ATP.  ATP is the chemical energy used by cells. Starch molecule Glucose molecule

4  Energy is released when a phosphate group is removed. - ATP  ADP + P  ADP is changed into ATP when a phosphate group is added. - ADP + P  ATP ATP transfers energy from the breakdown of food molecules to cell functions. Phosphate released

5 ATP Image by: Riedell What special kind of chemical is used by cells to store and transport ENERGY???

6 How Cells Obtain Energy https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i8c5JcnFaJ0 Stop to 3:20

7 PHOTOSYNTHESIS Plants make their own food through the process of photosynthesis. PHOTOSYNTHESIS EQUATION 6 CO H 2 O+ sunlight  C 6 H 12 O O 2 6 carbon dioxide + 6 water + sunlight  glucose + 6 oxygen

8 PHOTOSYNTHESIS VS. CHEMOSYNTHESIS In photosynthesis, light energy is used to make sugars. In chemosynthesis, chemical energy is used to make sugars.  Due to no sunlight Without it, there would be no life at the bottom of the sea.

9 4.2 OVERVIEW OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS

10 PRODUCERS/AUTOTROPHS Producers make their own food (sugars). Plants use photosynthesis. Photosynthesis captures energy from sunlight to make sugars.

11 CONSUMERS/HETEROTROPHS Consumers cannot make their own food. Obtain food by feeding on other organisms.

12 Photosynthesis takes place in two parts of chloroplasts. 1) Thylakoid: disk-shaped sac - grana (a stack of thylakoids) 2) Stroma: thick fluid inside the chloroplast chloroplast stroma grana (thylakoids) PHOTOSYNTHESIS

13 PHOTOSYNTHESIS EQUATION 6 CO H 2 O+ sunlight  C 6 H 12 O O 2 6 carbon dioxide + 6 water + sunlight  glucose + 6 oxygen Occurs in two main stages: 1. Light reactions (Light-Dependent) 2. Calvin cycle (Light-Independent)

14 Where? Thylakoid membrane Reactants: water & sunlight Water (H 2 O) broken apart  Oxygen (released)& H+ Products: Oxygen, H+, & ATP STAGE 1: THE LIGHT-DEPENDENT REACTIONS 1. Light-Dependent Reaction (thylakoid membrane) Light & Water Oxygen ATP H+

15 STAGE 2: THE LIGHT-INDEPENDENT REACTIONS (AKA CALVIN CYCLE) Where? stroma Reactants: carbon dioxide, ATP, & H+ Products: sugars (Glucose) 2.Light-Independent Reactions Calvin Cycle (stroma) Carbon Dioxide C 6 H 12 O 6 ATP H+

16 C 6 H 12 O 6 granum ( stack of thylakoids ) thylakoid sunlight 1 six-carbon sugar 6H 2 O 6CO 2 6O 2 chloroplast energy stroma ( fluid outside the thylakoids ) Light-dependent reactions Light-independent reactions 6 CO H 2 O+ sunlight  C 6 H 12 O O 2 6 carbon dioxide + 6 water + sunlight  glucose + 6 oxygen

17 PHOTOSYNTHESIS 1. Light-Dependent Reaction (thylakoid membrane) 2.Light-Independent Reactions Calvin Cycle (stroma) Light & Water Oxygen ATP & H+ Carbon Dioxide C 6 H 12 O 6

18 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eo5XndJaz-Y The simple story of photosynthesis and food

19 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eJQxHoqIPIM Photosynthesis

20 Detailed Photosynthesis Video Watch it, if interested

21 WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT THE LIGHT REACTIONS Stage ONE Gets energy from light & makes Oxygen Occur on thylakoid membranes Reactants: H 2 O, light End products: O 2, H+ ions, ATP 1. Light-Dependent Reaction (thylakoid membrane) Light & Water Oxygen ATP H+

22 Destination of end products: ATP and H+ ions go to stroma (Calvin cycle) O 2 released into the atmosphere as waste product WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT THE LIGHT REACTIONS 1. Light-Dependent Reaction (thylakoid membrane) Light & Water Oxygen ATP H+

23 WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT THE CALVIN CYCLE Stage Two Takes in CO 2 and makes Glucose (sugar) Occurs in the stroma Reactants: H+ ions, ATP, CO 2 Product: glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) 2. Light-Independent Reactions Calvin Cycle (stroma) Carbon Dioxide C 6 H 12 O 6 ATP H+

24 Where do the reactants come from? CO 2  from atmosphere H+ ions & ATP  from light reactions What you need to know about the Calvin cycle 2. Light-Independent Reactions Calvin Cycle (stroma) Carbon Dioxide C 6 H 12 O 6 ATP H+

25 4.4 OVERVIEW OF CELLULAR RESPIRATION

26 PHOTOSYNTHESIS & CELLULAR RESPIRATION Photosynthesis Equation: 6CO H 2 O + sunlight  C 6 H 12 O O 2 6 Carbon Dioxide + 6 Water + sunlight  Glucose + 6 Oxygen Cellular Respiration Equation: C 6 H 12 O O 2  6 CO H 2 O + ATP Glucose + 6 Oxygen  6 Carbon Dioxide + 6 Water + Energy Cellular respiration is like a mirror image of Photosynthesis.

27 CELLULAR RESPIRATION Cellular respiration makes ATP by breaking down sugars All organisms use cellular respiration for their energy needs It occurs in 2 places: o cytoplasm o mitochondria mitochondrion matrix inner membrane cytoplasm

28  1) Glycolysis – anaerobic (does not require oxygen)  2) The Krebs cycle – aerobic (requires oxygen)  3) The electron transport chain - aerobic(requires oxygen) 3 STAGES OF CELLULAR RESPIRATION

29 – anaerobic process (does not require oxygen) – takes place in cytoplasm – requires 2 ATP – splits glucose into two three- carbon molecules – produces 2 ATP molecules STAGE 1: GLYCOLYSIS mitochondrion matrix inner membrane cytoplasm Glucose

30 STAGE 2: THE KREBS CYCLE – aerobic process – requires oxygen – takes place in mitochondrial matrix – breaks down three-carbon molecules from glycolysis – makes 2 ATP molecules – releases CO 2 mitochondrion matrix inner membrane cytoplasm ATP & CO 2 O2O2

31 –aerobic process – requires oxygen –takes place in inner mitochondrial membrane –34 ATP produced –water released as a waste product STAGE 3: THE ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN mitochondrion matrix inner membrane cytoplasm O2O2 H 2 O & ATP

32 At the end of cellular respiration, the breakdown of one glucose molecule produces up to 38 molecules of ATP. 1) Glycolysis 2 ATP 2) Krebs Cycle 2 ATP 3) ETC 34 ATP Total: 38 ATP per 1 Glucose molecule

33 C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2  6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + ATP The reactants in photosynthesis are the same as the products of cellular respiration. CELLULAR RESPIRATION

34 1. Glycolysis (cytoplasm) 2. Krebs Cycle (mitochondrial matrix) Glucose & 2 ATP 2 ATP 2 3C- molecule Oxygen 2 ATP & CO 2 3. Electron Transport Chain (Inner mitochondrial membrane) electrons Oxygen 34 ATP & water CELLULAR RESPIRATION

35 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i8c5JcnFaJ0 How Cells Obtain Energy 3:20 – 8:22

36 4.6 FERMENTATION

37 FERMENTATION Fermentation allows glycolysis to continue making ATP when oxygen is unavailable. Fermentation is an anaerobic process.  occurs when oxygen is not available for cellular respiration  does not produce ATP

38 –Occurs in muscle cells. –Waste product in muscle cells of animals from exercise. –Causes soreness and fatigue in muscles LACTIC ACID FERMENTATION Glucose Lactic Acid NO OXYGEN Happens in bacteria, plants, and animals

39 ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION –Fermenting of sugar –Occurs in microorganisms (yeast) and plants producing ethyl alcohol. –Used to make cheese and yogurt from milk –Used in bread making and alcohol products Glucose Alcohol + CO 2 NO OXYGEN Happens in yeast

40 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CUpIHkPGmMc Cellular Respiration Analogy


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