3ATP All cells need chemical energy. Molecules in food store chemical energy in their bonds.When bonds in food you consume are broken, the energy released is used to make ATP.ATP is the chemical energy used by cells.Starch moleculeGlucose molecule
4ATP transfers energy from the breakdown of food molecules to cell functions. PhosphatereleasedEnergy is released when a phosphate group is removed.- ATP ADP + PADP is changed into ATP when a phosphate group is added.- ADP + P ATP
5What special kind of chemical is used by cells to store and transport ENERGY???ATPImage by: Riedell
6How Cells Obtain Energy Stop to 3:20https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i8c5JcnFaJ0
7PHOTOSYNTHESIS EQUATION Plants make their own food through the process of photosynthesis.PHOTOSYNTHESIS EQUATION6 CO2 + 6 H2O+ sunlight C6H12O6 + 6 O26 carbon dioxide + 6 water + sunlight glucose + 6 oxygen
8Photosynthesis vs. Chemosynthesis In photosynthesis, light energy is used to make sugars.In chemosynthesis, chemical energy is used to make sugars.Due to no sunlightWithout it, there would be no life at the bottom of the sea.
10Producers/Autotrophs Producers make their own food (sugars).Plants use photosynthesis.Photosynthesis captures energy from sunlight to make sugars.
11Consumers/heterotrophs Consumers cannot make their own food.Obtain food by feeding on other organisms.
12Photosynthesischloroplaststromagrana (thylakoids)Photosynthesis takes place in two parts of chloroplasts.1) Thylakoid: disk-shaped sac- grana (a stack of thylakoids)2) Stroma: thick fluid inside the chloroplast
13PHOTOSYNTHESIS EQUATION 6 CO2 + 6 H2O+ sunlight C6H12O6 + 6 O26 carbon dioxide + 6 water + sunlight glucose + 6 oxygenOccurs in two main stages:1. Light reactions (Light-Dependent)2. Calvin cycle (Light-Independent)
20Detailed Photosynthesis Video Watch it, if interested
21What you need to know about the light reactions Stage ONEGets energy from light & makes OxygenOccur on thylakoid membranesReactants: H2O, lightEnd products: O2, H+ ions, ATPOxygenLight & Water1. Light-Dependent Reaction(thylakoid membrane)ATPH+
22What you need to know about the light reactions Destination of end products:ATP and H+ ions go to stroma (Calvin cycle)O2 released into the atmosphere as waste productOxygenLight & Water1. Light-Dependent Reaction(thylakoid membrane)ATPH+
23What you need to know about the Calvin cycle Stage TwoTakes in CO2 and makes Glucose (sugar)Occurs in the stromaReactants: H+ ions, ATP, CO2Product: glucose (C6H12O6)ATPH+C6H12O6Carbon Dioxide2. Light-Independent ReactionsCalvin Cycle(stroma)
24What you need to know about the Calvin cycle Where do the reactants come from?CO2 from atmosphereH+ ions & ATP from light reactionsATPH+C6H12O6Carbon Dioxide2. Light-Independent ReactionsCalvin Cycle(stroma)
26Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration Cellular respiration is like a mirror image of Photosynthesis.Photosynthesis Equation:6CO H2O + sunlight C6H12O O26 Carbon Dioxide + 6 Water + sunlight Glucose OxygenCellular Respiration Equation:C6H12O O2 6 CO H2O + ATPGlucose + 6 Oxygen 6 Carbon Dioxide + 6 Water + Energy
27Cellular respirationCellular respiration makes ATP by breaking down sugarsAll organisms use cellular respiration for their energy needsIt occurs in 2 places:cytoplasmmitochondriamitochondrionmatrixinner membrane124cytoplasm
283 stages of Cellular respiration 1) Glycolysis – anaerobic (does not require oxygen)2) The Krebs cycle – aerobic (requires oxygen)3) The electron transport chain - aerobic(requires oxygen)
29Stage 1: Glycolysis anaerobic process (does not require oxygen) Glucoseanaerobic process (does not require oxygen)takes place in cytoplasmrequires 2 ATPsplits glucose into two three-carbon moleculesproduces 2 ATP moleculesmitochondrionmatrixinner membrane124cytoplasm
30Stage 2: The Krebs Cycle aerobic process – requires oxygen takes place in mitochondrial matrixbreaks down three-carbon molecules from glycolysismakes 2 ATP moleculesreleases CO2mitochondrionmatrixinner membrane124O2ATP & CO2cytoplasm
31Stage 3: The Electron Transport Chain aerobic process – requires oxygentakes place in inner mitochondrial membrane34 ATP producedwater released as a waste productmitochondrionmatrixinner membrane124cytoplasmO2H2O & ATP
32Total: 38 ATP per 1 Glucose molecule At the end of cellular respiration, the breakdown of one glucose molecule produces up to 38 molecules of ATP.1) Glycolysis ATP2) Krebs Cycle 2 ATP3) ETC ATPTotal: ATP per 1 Glucose molecule
33Cellular respirationC6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATPThe reactants in photosynthesis are the same as the products of cellular respiration.
34Cellular respiration 1. Glycolysis Glucose & 2 ATP (cytoplasm) 2 ATP 2 3C-molecule2 ATP & CO2Oxygen2. Krebs Cycle(mitochondrial matrix)electrons34 ATP & waterOxygen3. Electron Transport Chain(Inner mitochondrial membrane)
35How Cells Obtain Energy 3:20 – 8:22https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i8c5JcnFaJ0
37FermentationFermentation allows glycolysis to continue making ATP when oxygen is unavailable.Fermentation is an anaerobic process.occurs when oxygen is not available for cellular respirationdoes not produce ATP
38Lactic acid fermentation Occurs in muscle cells.Waste product in muscle cells of animals from exercise.Causes soreness and fatigue in musclesGlucoseHappens in bacteria, plants, and animalsNO OXYGENLactic Acid
39Alcoholic Fermentation Fermenting of sugarOccurs in microorganisms (yeast) and plants producing ethyl alcohol.Used to make cheese and yogurt from milkUsed in bread making and alcohol productsGlucoseHappens in yeastNO OXYGENAlcohol + CO2