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Chapter 4 Cells and Energy.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 Cells and Energy."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 4 Cells and Energy

2 4.1 Chemical Energy and ATP

3 ATP All cells need chemical energy.
Molecules in food store chemical energy in their bonds. When bonds in food you consume are broken, the energy released is used to make ATP. ATP is the chemical energy used by cells. Starch molecule Glucose molecule

4 ATP transfers energy from the breakdown of food molecules to cell functions.
Phosphate released Energy is released when a phosphate group is removed. - ATP  ADP + P ADP is changed into ATP when a phosphate group is added. - ADP + P  ATP

5 What special kind of chemical is used by cells to store and transport ENERGY??? ATP Image by: Riedell

6 How Cells Obtain Energy
Stop to 3:20 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i8c5JcnFaJ0

7 PHOTOSYNTHESIS EQUATION
Plants make their own food through the process of photosynthesis. PHOTOSYNTHESIS EQUATION 6 CO2 + 6 H2O+ sunlight  C6H12O6 + 6 O2 6 carbon dioxide + 6 water + sunlight  glucose + 6 oxygen

8 Photosynthesis vs. Chemosynthesis
In photosynthesis, light energy is used to make sugars. In chemosynthesis, chemical energy is used to make sugars. Due to no sunlight Without it, there would be no life at the bottom of the sea.

9 4.2 Overview of Photosynthesis

10 Producers/Autotrophs
Producers make their own food (sugars). Plants use photosynthesis. Photosynthesis captures energy from sunlight to make sugars.

11 Consumers/heterotrophs
Consumers cannot make their own food. Obtain food by feeding on other organisms.

12 Photosynthesis chloroplast stroma grana (thylakoids) Photosynthesis takes place in two parts of chloroplasts. 1) Thylakoid: disk-shaped sac - grana (a stack of thylakoids) 2) Stroma: thick fluid inside the chloroplast

13 PHOTOSYNTHESIS EQUATION
6 CO2 + 6 H2O+ sunlight  C6H12O6 + 6 O2 6 carbon dioxide + 6 water + sunlight  glucose + 6 oxygen Occurs in two main stages: 1. Light reactions (Light-Dependent) 2. Calvin cycle (Light-Independent)

14 Stage 1: The light-dependent reactions
Where? Thylakoid membrane Reactants: water & sunlight Water (H2O) broken apart  Oxygen (released)& H+ Products: Oxygen, H+, & ATP Oxygen Light & Water 1. Light-Dependent Reaction (thylakoid membrane) ATP H+

15 Stage 2: The light-independent reactions (AKA Calvin cycle)
Where? stroma Reactants: carbon dioxide, ATP, & H+ Products: sugars (Glucose) ATP H+ C6H12O6 Carbon Dioxide 2.Light-Independent Reactions Calvin Cycle (stroma)

16 6 CO2 + 6 H2O+ sunlight  C6H12O6 + 6 O2
6 carbon dioxide + 6 water + sunlight  glucose + 6 oxygen C6H12O6 granum (stack of thylakoids) thylakoid sunlight 1 six-carbon sugar 6H2 O 6CO2 6O2 chloroplast 1 2 4 3 energy stroma (fluid outside the thylakoids) Light-dependent reactions Light-independent reactions

17 2.Light-Independent Reactions
PHOTOSYNTHESIS Oxygen Light & Water 1. Light-Dependent Reaction (thylakoid membrane) ATP & H+ Carbon Dioxide C6H12O6 2.Light-Independent Reactions Calvin Cycle (stroma)

18 The simple story of photosynthesis and food
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eo5XndJaz-Y

19 Photosynthesis https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eJQxHoqIPIM

20 Detailed Photosynthesis Video
Watch it, if interested

21 What you need to know about the light reactions
Stage ONE Gets energy from light & makes Oxygen Occur on thylakoid membranes Reactants: H2O, light End products: O2, H+ ions, ATP Oxygen Light & Water 1. Light-Dependent Reaction (thylakoid membrane) ATP H+

22 What you need to know about the light reactions
Destination of end products: ATP and H+ ions go to stroma (Calvin cycle) O2 released into the atmosphere as waste product Oxygen Light & Water 1. Light-Dependent Reaction (thylakoid membrane) ATP H+

23 What you need to know about the Calvin cycle
Stage Two Takes in CO2 and makes Glucose (sugar) Occurs in the stroma Reactants: H+ ions, ATP, CO2 Product: glucose (C6H12O6) ATP H+ C6H12O6 Carbon Dioxide 2. Light-Independent Reactions Calvin Cycle (stroma)

24 What you need to know about the Calvin cycle
Where do the reactants come from? CO2  from atmosphere H+ ions & ATP  from light reactions ATP H+ C6H12O6 Carbon Dioxide 2. Light-Independent Reactions Calvin Cycle (stroma)

25 4.4 Overview of Cellular Respiration

26 Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration
Cellular respiration is like a mirror image of Photosynthesis. Photosynthesis Equation: 6CO H2O + sunlight  C6H12O O2 6 Carbon Dioxide + 6 Water + sunlight  Glucose Oxygen Cellular Respiration Equation: C6H12O O2  6 CO H2O + ATP Glucose + 6 Oxygen  6 Carbon Dioxide + 6 Water + Energy

27 Cellular respiration Cellular respiration makes ATP by breaking down sugars All organisms use cellular respiration for their energy needs It occurs in 2 places: cytoplasm mitochondria mitochondrion matrix inner membrane 1 2 4 cytoplasm

28 3 stages of Cellular respiration
1) Glycolysis – anaerobic (does not require oxygen) 2) The Krebs cycle – aerobic (requires oxygen) 3) The electron transport chain - aerobic(requires oxygen)

29 Stage 1: Glycolysis anaerobic process (does not require oxygen)
Glucose anaerobic process (does not require oxygen) takes place in cytoplasm requires 2 ATP splits glucose into two three-carbon molecules produces 2 ATP molecules mitochondrion matrix inner membrane 1 2 4 cytoplasm

30 Stage 2: The Krebs Cycle aerobic process – requires oxygen
takes place in mitochondrial matrix breaks down three-carbon molecules from glycolysis makes 2 ATP molecules releases CO2 mitochondrion matrix inner membrane 1 2 4 O2 ATP & CO2 cytoplasm

31 Stage 3: The Electron Transport Chain
aerobic process – requires oxygen takes place in inner mitochondrial membrane 34 ATP produced water released as a waste product mitochondrion matrix inner membrane 1 2 4 cytoplasm O2 H2O & ATP

32 Total: 38 ATP per 1 Glucose molecule
At the end of cellular respiration, the breakdown of one glucose molecule produces up to 38 molecules of ATP. 1) Glycolysis ATP 2) Krebs Cycle 2 ATP 3) ETC ATP Total: ATP per 1 Glucose molecule

33 Cellular respiration C6H12O6 + 6O2  6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP The reactants in photosynthesis are the same as the products of cellular respiration.

34 Cellular respiration 1. Glycolysis Glucose & 2 ATP (cytoplasm) 2 ATP
2 3C-molecule 2 ATP & CO2 Oxygen 2. Krebs Cycle (mitochondrial matrix) electrons 34 ATP & water Oxygen 3. Electron Transport Chain (Inner mitochondrial membrane)

35 How Cells Obtain Energy
3:20 – 8:22 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i8c5JcnFaJ0

36 4.6 Fermentation

37 Fermentation Fermentation allows glycolysis to continue making ATP when oxygen is unavailable. Fermentation is an anaerobic process. occurs when oxygen is not available for cellular respiration does not produce ATP

38 Lactic acid fermentation
Occurs in muscle cells. Waste product in muscle cells of animals from exercise. Causes soreness and fatigue in muscles Glucose Happens in bacteria, plants, and animals NO OXYGEN Lactic Acid

39 Alcoholic Fermentation
Fermenting of sugar Occurs in microorganisms (yeast) and plants producing ethyl alcohol. Used to make cheese and yogurt from milk Used in bread making and alcohol products Glucose Happens in yeast NO OXYGEN Alcohol + CO2

40 Cellular Respiration Analogy
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CUpIHkPGmMc


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