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Chapter 5: The Nonliving Environment

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5: The Nonliving Environment"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 5: The Nonliving Environment

2 Section 1: Abiotic Factors
Abiotic Factors: “not” biotic factors, nonliving Name 4 from the pic. Air Soil Rocks Water Sunlight Temperature Climate

3 Atmosphere Air contains: 78% Nitrogen 21% Oxygen .03% Carbon Dioxide
Needed for Photosynthesis. The process that supports all life.

4 Water Essential for life on earth. Living organisms are 50-95% water.
Water covers over 70% of earth’s surface, however: Over 97% of it is saltwater in the oceans. Only 3% of the earth’s water is freshwater. 68% of this water is locked in glaciers. 30% is found in the ground Less than 0.3% of the freshwater on earth is in lakes, rivers, swamps, and the atmosphere. AKA, usable water.


6 Soil Mixture of minerals, rock particles, decaying organisms, water, and air. Abiotic because it is mostly rocks and minerals. Contains many biotic factors as well: Bacteria Fungus Insects Worms

7 Sunlight and Temperature
Sunlight is the original source of energy for earth. Used in photosynthesis. Eventually supports all life. Temperature of a region is controlled by the sunlight. Latitude: The closer to the equator, the more direct sunlight a region gets for more days per year. Elevation Lower temperature at higher elevations. Why? Air is thinner, therefore less molecules. Heat is the amount of energy that molecules have……..

8 Climate and Wind An area’s average weather conditions
Temperature and Precipitation: 2 key components Influence the type of life that inhabits any ecosystem. Wind Also a result of the sun. Wind is caused when molecules in an area of the atmosphere are heated.

9 Abiotic Factors influencing Biotic Factors.

10 Section 2: Cycles in Nature
The Water Cycle

11 Nitrogen Cycle: What is Nitrogen?
Important ingredient in proteins of life. Essential part of our DNA chain. The most plentiful gas in the atmosphere. (78%) Very few organisms can use N from the air. Nitrogen fixing bacteria in the soil form N compounds that plants can use. These bacteria are found in the nodules (roots) of soybeans, peas, and clover. Lightning also releases Atmospheric Nitrogen to the rain and eventually soil to be used by plants. (5-8% )

12 The Nitrogen Cycle.

13 The Carbon Cycle A cycle of carbon atoms between the living and non-living parts of the ecosystems.

14 Section 3: Energy Flow Photosynthesis vs. Chemosynthesis
Photo: the use of light by plants to produce energy rich molecules Chemo: the use of chemicals by bacteria to produce energy rich molecules Deep sea ocean vents. No sunlight. Food webs begin with bacteria, not plants. Sulfur emitted by the volcanic vents is synthesized by the bacteria into energy.

15 Energy Pyramid

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