Presentation on theme: "Chapter 52 An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 52 An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere
2Essential Knowledge2.d.1 – All biological systems from cells and organisms to populations, communities, and ecosystems are affected by complex biotic and abiotic interaction involving exchange of matter and free energy (52.2).
3EcologyThe study of the interactions between organisms and their environment
4Organisms All living beings (animals, plants, fungi, etc) Studied at many different levels
5Ecology - levels1. Organismal Ecology 2. Population Ecology 3. Community Ecology 4. Biome Ecology 5. Biosphere Ecology
7Abiotic Factors1. Temperature 2. Water 3. Sunlight 4. Wind 5. Rocks and Soil 6. Disturbance
8Temperature Effects cell contents Ex: Cold – cells will rupture if temperatures drop below a certain pointHot – many proteins and DNA will denaturePoint – life can only exist over a fairly narrow temperature range
9Water Review the properties of water from Chapter 3. Cells must maintain a certain water potential level (keep from exploding or drying out).
10Sunlight Provides energy for Ps, which drives most food webs. Plants often compete for light because of shading or absorption of light by deep columns of water.
11Wind Effects temperature and water conditions for many organisms. May carry abrasive particles that limit plant growth by killing the SAM areas.SAM??? Shoot apical meristem areas
12Rocks and SoilPhysical structure, pH, mineral composition of rocks and soil limit where plants can grow.Ex. Se soils.Plants limit what animals can be found in an area.
13Disturbance Disturbance is often an important part of an environment. Allows organisms to re-colonize an area.Ex: Fire Humans WindYellowstone Fire
14ClimateShapes environments and what organisms can live in a particular area.Climatic factors:Solar radiation and latitudeAxis tilt/seasonsAir/Water circulation patterns
15Solar Radiation and Latitude Changes the amount of light and energy delivered per surface area.Result:Poles: less lightEquator: more lightUnequal heating causes air and water to circulate
19Global Air Patterns Air rises when heated, sinks when cools. Zones of rising/sinking are created.Earth's rotation causes zones to "twist”.Result:Air circulation patternsRain fall patternsRising air: wet areasDescending air: dry areas
29Desert Characterized by plants adapted to dry growing conditions. Cacti, succulentsClimate:Dry (<30cm/yr).May be cold or hot.Often found in areas of descending air masses.Low productivity, but still fairly diverse in species.
31Chaparral Characterized by spiny evergreen shrubs. Climate: Mild rainy wintersHot summersEx: Southern CaliforniaMaintained by firesPlants adapted to periodic fires by seeds or re-growing from the roots
36Temperate ForestsDeciduous trees dominate (often called deciduous forest)Climate:Relatively high rainCold wintersVery little natural area left.Good diversity of species.Coniferous forest:Tall stands of cone-bearing tress
38Taiga (Boreal forest)Coniferous trees dominate (also called coniferous forests)Climate:Long cold wintersShort wet summersLong summer daylengthRelatively low species diversityBeing logged at an alarming rate (disappearing rapidly!)
47Light ZonesPhotic - Enough light for Ps. Red light lost rapidly as depth increases.Aphotic - Lacks enough light for Ps and depends on food made in photic zone for energy. Part of the most extensive biome on the planet.
49Estuaries Where a freshwater river meets the ocean. Salinity variable. Very productive Biome.Complex flow patterns
50Coral Reef Characterized by coral. Found in shallow warm waters. Very productive.High species diversity.Very sensitive to temperature changes
51BenthosBottom area.Usually fed by nutrients drifting down from upper levels.Fairly rich in life.
52Summary Know what is involved with the study of “Ecology”. Know the major factors of planet Earth that shape climate.Know the major terrestrial biomes and the factors that control them.Know the major types of aquatic biomes and the factors that control them.