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Chapter 23 Introduction to Plants 1. 1. Autotrophs 2. Multicellular 3. Eukaryotes 4. Cell Wall is made out of Cellulose 2.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 23 Introduction to Plants 1. 1. Autotrophs 2. Multicellular 3. Eukaryotes 4. Cell Wall is made out of Cellulose 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 23 Introduction to Plants 1

2 1. Autotrophs 2. Multicellular 3. Eukaryotes 4. Cell Wall is made out of Cellulose 2

3  Chemical Equation: ◦ CO 2 + H 2 O  C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2  Word Equation: ◦ Carbon Dioxide + Water  Glucose + Oxygen Sunlight 3

4  The common ancestor of ALL plants is thought to be Green Algae  In the early evolution of plants, they made the transition from aquatic to land environments 4

5 *Increased opportunity for photosynthesis*  Increased access to sunlight  Increased access to carbon dioxide  Increased opportunity to reproduce and disperse (spread out) But, decreased access to water as well… How did plants overcome that barrier to successfully colonize on land?? 5

6  Mycorrhizae is a mutualistic relationship between plants and fungi to help a plant absorb water and nutrients from the soil.  This relationship helped plants transition to land. 6

7  Almost all plants have a cuticle covering their leaves and stems to prevent water loss  The cuticle is waxy (lots of lipids) and holds water in  The cuticle is also clear to let sunlight in for photosynthesis 7

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9 Once plants colonized land, certain adaptations allowed them to reproduce and disperse their offspring more effectively—this was the driving force for the evolution of plants 9

10 Bryophytes Mosses Green algae Seedless vascular plants Ferns Gymnosperms Evergreens Angiosperms Flowering Plants Evolution of specialized cells / tissue Evolution of cuticle 10

11 1. Bryophytes (Seedless, Non-Vascular)-Mosses 2. Seedless, vascular plants- Ferns 3. Gymnosperms- Evergreens (Pine Trees) 4. Angiosperms-Flowering plants 11

12 12 Mitosis is a type of cell division that makes an exact copy of the original cell Can be Haploid to Haploid or Diploid to Diploid Meiosis is a type of cell division that makes cells with Half the number of chromosomes as the original cell Can only be Diploid to Haploid

13  An alternation between two distinct forms or generations that reproduce differently  One generation is haploid and reproduces sexually  The other generation is diploid and reproduces asexually 13

14 Multicellular diploid organism (2n) Unicellular haploid cells (n) meiosis Unicellular diploid zygote (2n) mitosis (spores) Multicellular haploid organism (n) mitosis Unicellular haploid gametes (n) fertilization sporophyte gametophyte mitosis 14

15 Moss Life Cycle 15

16 By definition, all plants alternate generations Gametophyte makes gametes n=haploid Sporophyte makes spores 2n=diploid 16

17 Notice that the more advanced plants have a dominant Sporophyte The less advanced plants have a more dominant Gametophyte 17

18 Bryophytes Green algae Seedless vascular plants Gymnosperms Angiosperms Evolution of specialized cells / tissue Example: cuticle 18

19  Bryophytes  Example: Moss 19

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21  They are small and low to the ground because they do not have vascular tissue  Found only in damp, moist areas on land ◦ 1) Leaves must absorb water for photosynthesis ◦ 2) Sperm swims through water to reach egg in gametophyte 21

22 gametophyte sporophyte 22

23 Bryophytes Green algae Seedless vascular plants Gymnosperms Angiosperms Evolution of specialized cells / tissue Evolution of cuticle Evolution of vascular tissue 23

24  Example: Ferns 24

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26  Vascular Tissue ◦ Set of tubes that transport materials around plant ◦ Allows plants to grow taller ◦ Water travels up through Xylem ◦ Sugar/Food travels throughout in Phloem 26

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28  Still must live in moist areas  Sporophyte grows successfully with vascular tissue  But sperm must still swim to egg in tiny gametophyte 28

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31 Fern Life Cycle 31

32 Bryophytes Green algae Seedless vascular plants Gymnosperms Angiosperms Evolution of specialized cells / tissue Evolution of cuticle Evolution of vascular tissue Evolution of pollen grains / seeds 32

33  Gymnosperms/Angiosperms  Example: Pine Trees or Flowers 33

34  Examples: Spruce Tree, Fir Tree, Pine Tree 34

35  Think cones (any conifer like pine trees) female ovary male pollen cone 35

36 tiny gametophyte inside cone sporophyte Sporophyte Dominates 36

37  Release a lot, hope some pollinate  (Meanwhile, irritating everyone else)  Pollen is the male sperm in Gymnosperms and Angiosperms 37

38  Seeds  Pollen Grains 38

39  Tough coat protects newly fertilized embryo  Also contains supply of food (endosperm) to survive during dormancy period  A seed in a gymnosperm is inside the cone 39

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41  Plants try to disperse offspring far away so they have a higher chance of survival.  Dispersal of seeds prevents competition for water, nutrients, light, and living space. Seed Dispersal 41

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43  Dispersal by wind – wing-like structures, parachute-like structures 43

44  Dispersal by animals – fruits have hooks that cling on animals fur, other fruits provide food for animals 44

45  Seeds dispersal is completed by birds, small animals, wind, and water  The tough, fibrous outer covering of a coconut provides protection as well as a floatation device 45

46  Hard covering around sperm, light weight allows travel by wind  Removes water requirement for fertilization 46

47  At the very end when pollen lands on another plant of the same species  Pollen tube connects to ovary, fertilizing egg 47

48 Bryophytes Green algae Seedless vascular plants Gymnosperms Angiosperms Evolution of specialized cells / tissue Evolution of cuticle Evolution of vascular tissue Evolution of pollen grains / seeds Evolution of flowers / fruits 48

49  Think flowers  Most diverse plant group  Most Dominant Plant group on the planet 49

50  Flowers ◦ Adapted for pollination by animals ◦ Attract animals to help carry pollen to the next flower ◦ Color or scent attractors guide animals to obtain sugar from plant ◦ Some angiosperms still wind pollinate (grass) 50

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53 53  Monocots include: grasses, corn, rice, oats, wheat, orchids, lilies and palms  Dicots include: shrubs, trees (except conifers) wild flowers and some garden flowers

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58  Monocot-pedals in groups of three or multiples of three  Dicots-pedals in groups of 4s or 5s 58

59 Sepals protect the flower bud from insect damage and dryness The color, scent, and nectar of flowers attracts insects, bats, and birds These animals help to transfer the pollen from the anthers of one flower to the stigma of other flowers- called pollination 59

60 tiny gametophyte inside bottom of flower rest of plant = sporophyte Sporophyte Dominates 60

61 The Pollen grains are transferred to the Stigma where the pollen grain produces a Pollen tube The pollen tube grows down the style into the ovary where it fertilizes the ovule The fertilized ovule becomes a seed and the ovary develops into the fruit of the plant 61

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64  Typically collects sugar to attract animals  Seeds survive animal digestive system, pooped out far away from parent (and with free fertilizer!)  Some are not eaten by animals, just help wind carry seed ◦ Example: dandelion 64

65 Bryophytes Green algae Seedless vascular plants Gymnosperms Angiosperms Evolution of specialized cells / tissue Evolution of cuticle Evolution of vascular tissue Evolution of pollen grains / seeds Evolution of flowers / fruits 65

66  Plants can also reproduce asexually  Vegetative reproduction is faster than sexual reproduction.  Vegetative reproduction is where many plant parts can grow to make a whole new organism when separated. ◦ Examples: Ivy or Potato 66

67  A division of seed plants that have only one living species  The leaves of the plant are fan shaped  The Ginkgo is the oldest tree in the world, once thought to be extinct  Ginkgo’s are the lone survivor of a "family that existed more than 200 million years ago" and kept company with the dinosaurs 67

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69  The male trees are preferred because female trees bear a fruit which, after dropping, emits a foul odor. The fruit is about the size of a cherry tomato  Roasted nuts from Ginkgo biloba trees have long been considered a delicacy in their native China.  Treatment for short-term memory loss is just one of many medicinal uses for the extract derived from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba trees. 69


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