Presentation on theme: "Diversity Part 2: Plants"— Presentation transcript:
1Diversity Part 2: Plants Chapter 23 Introduction to Plants
2Characteristics of Plants AutotrophsMulticellularEukaryotesCell Wall is made out of Cellulose
3Photosynthesis Chemical Equation: CO2 + H2O C6H12O6 + O2 Word Equation:Carbon Dioxide + Water Glucose + OxygenSunlightSunlight
4Common AncestorThe common ancestor of ALL plants is thought to be Green AlgaeIn the early evolution of plants, they made the transition from aquatic to land environments
5But, decreased access to water as well… Why Move onto Land?*Increased opportunity for photosynthesis*Increased access to sunlightIncreased access to carbon dioxideIncreased opportunity to reproduce and disperse (spread out)But, decreased access to water as well…How did plants overcome that barrier to successfully colonize on land??
6Importance of Mycorrhizae Mycorrhizae is a mutualistic relationship between plants and fungi to help a plant absorb water and nutrients from the soil.This relationship helped plants transition to land.
7CuticleAlmost all plants have a cuticle covering their leaves and stems to prevent water lossThe cuticle is waxy (lots of lipids) and holds water inThe cuticle is also clear to let sunlight in for photosynthesis
12Mitosis is a type of cell division that makes an exact copy of the original cellCan be Haploid to Haploid orDiploid to DiploidMeiosis is a type of cell division that makes cells with Half the number of chromosomes as the original cellCan only be Diploid to Haploid
13Plant Life Cycles: Alternation of Generations An alternation between two distinct forms or generations that reproduce differentlyOne generation is haploid and reproduces sexuallyThe other generation is diploid and reproduces asexually
21BryophytesThey are small and low to the ground because they do not have vascular tissueFound only in damp, moist areas on land1) Leaves must absorb water for photosynthesis2) Sperm swims through water to reach egg in gametophyte
26Key Adaptation over Nonvascular Plants Vascular TissueSet of tubes that transport materials around plantAllows plants to grow tallerWater travels up through XylemSugar/Food travels throughout in Phloem
43Seed DispersalDispersal by wind – wing-like structures, parachute-like structures
44Seed DispersalDispersal by animals – fruits have hooks that cling on animals fur, other fruits provide food for animals
45Seed DispersalSeeds dispersal is completed by birds, small animals, wind, and waterThe tough, fibrous outer covering of a coconut provides protection as well as a floatation device
46Pollen GrainHard covering around sperm, light weight allows travel by windRemoves water requirement for fertilization
47Pollen Grain SpermAt the very end when pollen lands on another plant of the same speciesPollen tube connects to ovary, fertilizing egg
48Seedless vascular plants CladogramGymnospermsAngiospermsEvolution of flowers / fruitsSeedless vascular plantsEvolution of pollen grains / seedsBryophytesEvolution of vascular tissueEvolution of specialized cells / tissueEvolution of cuticleGreen algae
49Angiosperms Think flowers Most diverse plant group Most Dominant Plant groupon the planet
50Key Adaptation Over Gymnosperms FlowersAdapted for pollination by animalsAttract animals to help carry pollen to the next flowerColor or scent attractors guide animals to obtain sugar from plantSome angiosperms still wind pollinate (grass)
53Angiosperms are Divided into Monocots and Dicots Monocots include: grasses, corn, rice, oats, wheat, orchids, lilies and palmsDicots include: shrubs, trees (except conifers) wild flowers and some garden flowers
58Monocot and Dicot Flower Pedals Monocot-pedals in groups of three or multiples of threeDicots-pedals in groups of 4s or 5s
59Flower Structure of an Angiosperm Sepals protect the flower bud from insect damage and drynessThe color, scent, and nectar of flowers attracts insects, bats, and birdsThese animals help to transfer the pollen from the anthers of one flower to the stigma of other flowers-called pollination
60Sunflower Angiosperms tiny gametophyte inside bottom of flowerrest of plant = sporophyteSporophyte Dominates
61Pollen Tube Growth and Fertilization in Angiosperms The Pollen grains are transferred to the Stigma where the pollen grain produces a Pollen tubeThe pollen tube grows down the style into the ovary where it fertilizes the ovuleThe fertilized ovule becomes a seed and the ovary develops into the fruit of the plant
62The Sporophyte is the dominant stage in the life cycle of the Angiosperms
63After fertilization, the ovary becomes the fruit and the ovule becomes the seed.
64Fruit Typically collects sugar to attract animals Seeds survive animal digestive system, pooped out far away from parent (and with free fertilizer!)Some are not eaten by animals, just help wind carry seedExample: dandelion
65Seedless vascular plants CladogramGymnospermsAngiospermsEvolution of flowers / fruitsSeedless vascular plantsEvolution of pollen grains / seedsBryophytesEvolution of vascular tissueEvolution of specialized cells / tissueEvolution of cuticleGreen algae
66Asexual Reproduction Plants can also reproduce asexually Vegetative reproduction is faster than sexual reproduction.Vegetative reproduction is where many plant parts can grow to make a whole new organism when separated.Examples: Ivy or Potato
67Ginkgophyta or “Ginkgo Tree” A division of seed plants thathave only one living speciesThe leaves of the plant are fan shapedThe Ginkgo is the oldest tree in the world, once thought to be extinctGinkgo’s are the lone survivor of a "family that existed more than 200 million years ago" and kept company with the dinosaurs
69Ginkgo TreeThe male trees are preferred because female trees bear a fruit which, after dropping, emits a foul odor. The fruit is about the size of a cherry tomatoRoasted nuts from Ginkgo biloba trees have long been considered a delicacy in their native China.Treatment for short-term memory loss is just one of many medicinal uses for the extract derived from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba trees.