2PhotosynthesisIs the process whereby organisms convert light energy into chemical bond energy of glucoseIt occurs in the Chloroplasts of plant cells
3All cells need chemical energy to survive The chemical energy used for most cell processes is carried by ATPThink of ATP as a wallet filled with money:Just like a wallet carries money that you can spend, ATP carries chemical energy that cells can use. Cells use ATP for functions such as building molecules and moving materials by active transport. The energy carried by ATP is released when a phosphate group is removed from the molecule. ATP has 3 phosphate groups, but the bond holding the third phosphate group is unstable & easily broken. The removal of the 3rd phosphate involves a reaction that releases energy, when the phosphate is removed, energy is released and ATP becomes ADP, a lower energy molecule.
4ATP – Temporary energy storage molecule ATP is a readily usable form of chemical energy. By breaking off the 3rd phosphate (ATP = adenosine triphosphate),energy is release to allow reactions to happen, such as changing the shape of a protein
5Chemosynthesis:Organisms who use chemical energy instead of light energy to make energy storing carbon based molecules. (Not all organisms have access to light and photosynthesis, such as organisms that live in the deep ocean.)
6Animals/plants use energy from sunlight… The energy from sunlight comes from ATPATP is made from the breakdown of sugarsPhotosynthesis: is the process that captures energy from sunlight to make sugars that store chemical energy. Therefore, the energy for all organisms begins as sunlight.Chlorophyll: is a molecule in chloroplasts that absorbs some of the energy in visible light.Chloroplasts: where photosynthesis takes place in plants
7There are two stages to photosynthesis: Light Dependent ReactionsEnergy is captured from sunlightEnergy is transferred to electrons on an electron transport chain pg103Water molecules are broken down, they provide energy for transportThe products are oxygen, NADPH, and ATPEnergy from NADPH and ATP are used later to make sugar.2. Light –Independent Reactions (Calvin Cycle)- do not need sunlight- can take place anytime energy is available. The energy source is ATP and NADPH formed during the light-dependent reactions.The Calvin cycle uses CO2, ATP, and NADPH to make simple sugars. Creates a 6 carbon sugar such as glucose.
8Cellular Respiration: pg 107 Cellular Respiration: releases chemical energy from sugars and other carbon based molecules to make ATP when oxygen is present.Cellular respiration is aerobic- meaning it needs oxygen to take place.Cellular respiration takes place in the mitochondria, because in the mitochondria is where most of the cell’s ATP is made.Mitochondria CAN NOT directly make ATP from foodFood broken down into glucose moleculesGlycolysis- splits glucose molecules into two 3-carbon molecules and makes two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm and does not need oxygen, therefore it is anaerobic.However, glycolysis is necessary for cellular respiration. The products of glycolysis are broken down in the mitochondria to make more ATP.
9Cellular Respiration: Coverts sugar into ATP using oxygen Glycolysis: splits glucoseThe Krebs Cycle: transfers energy to the electron transport chain, which produces most of the ATP in eukaryotic cells.The Krebs has two stagesBreaks down carbon based moleculesandtransfers energy to electron carriers – the electron carriers provide energy to the electron transport chain. ATP is produced by the electron transport chain.
10Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are two major processes of carbon cycling in living organisms. One similarity between photosynthesis and cellular respiration is both convert light energy into chemical energy.
11Photosynthesis vs. Respiration Think of Photosynthesis like baking a cake. The plant takes raw material (CO2 and H20) and uses light energy to make Glucose (and releases O2 in the process)Respiration is the process whereby organisms break down glucose to provide energy to all life processesBreaks down glucose (sometimes with O2 and others without it), transfers energy to a small energy transferring compound called ATPThink of Respiration like burning the cake. Energy is released from the bonds of glucose to be stored as ATP.All plants (photosynthetic organisms) undergo both Photosynthesis (only in the presence of light) and Respiration (all of the time)All living organisms must go through respiration 24/7
12Energy inPhotosynthesisEnergy outEnergy inRespirationEnergy outProcessEnergy TransformationsPhotosynthesisCO2 and H2O are transformed using the energy from sunlight to create C6H12O6 and O2. The captured and used energy is stored in the chemical bonds of glucose (C6H12O6)Cellular RespirationO2 and C6H12O6 are broken down with a small amount of invested energy to form CO2 + H2O and a large amount of ATP which is the energy storage molecule of living things
13Energy transformations involved in photosynthesis are related to energy transformations involved in cellular respiration…They are, in essence, the reverse of each other. The products of photosynthesis become the reactants for cellular respiration, and the opposite is true.Again, one bakes the cake and the other one breaks it down to release the energy