2Climate of ColombiaThe Climate of Colombia is characterized for being tropical and isothermal as a result of its geographical location near the Equator presenting variations within five natural regions and depending on the altitude, temperature, humidity, winds and rainfall.Each region maintains an average temperature throughout the year only presenting variables determined by precipitation during a rainy season caused by the Intertropical Convergence Zone
3Factors affecting the climate Factors of the climate are the constant conditions that modify the climate.The geographical factors are determined by latitude , altitude, water masses and relief
4latitude.Latitude is the angular measurement in degrees of the distance from the equator to any location on the Earth. Depending on the latitude of a location determines the amount of sunlight that a location receives.The higher your latitude the less sunlight you will receive throughout the year, and the cooler will be your climate.Colombia is crossed by the equator in its southern part, but the majority of the territory is part of the northern hemisphere and within the torrid zone which is characterized for receiving direct sunlight throughout the year, in consequence this zone is the hottest of the earth.
5Altitude:altitude is commonly used to mean the height above sea level of a location.A considerable area of Colombia is mountainous, mainly crossed by the Andes mountain range from south to north. Altitude in this mountains counter rest the effects of the latitude characteristics producing gradual variable climates from tropical foothills and coastlines to perpetual snow peaks. In Colombia these are classified as "thermal floors" (Spanish: Pisos térmicos).
6Water Masses and relief. Colombia is also bordered by two massive oceans, the Pacific and the Atlantic (through the Caribbean) which force the humid winds to pass over Colombia with humidity and rainfall that is contained by the Andes and other mountain ranges, that is the case of Lloró in Chocó Department which is one of the rainiest lowlands in the world.The contrary occurs with the trade winds from the northeast that also crosses Colombia penetrating without any mountainous ranges the valleys of the Magdalena and Cauca rivers, and also the trade winds from the southeast that cover the Amazon region only blocked by the Andes mountains. In the case of the Guajira Peninsula plains, the trade winds are unable to be stopped (despite having a low altitude range of mountains; the Serranía de Macuira and continue traveling inland towards Colombia's central regions, for this reason the Guajira area present a dry climate and produced the Guajira desert
7Elements affecting the climate climatic elements are conditions that are part of the climatic characteristics of a place. These are not stable because they can change when interacting with other elements or climate factors.The elements that affect the climate are:TemperatureHumidityWindsPrecipitationsAtmospheric Pressure
8Temperature:Is relatively average throughout the year in a same place. The tropical location of Colombia and the uniform solar radiation for being in the equator gives this country an almost constant temperature. The atmosphere varies due to the altitude in the mountains and its proximity to sea level.
9Humidity:Humidity is a term for the amount of water vapor in air. In Colombia is diverse and is characteristic of each region and subregion. Humidity is produced by the action of Sun because its energy evaporates the water of rivers, lakes and oceans.The Pacific, Amazon and Orinoquía regions are the rainiest and the lowest and dries are in the northern part of the Caribbean region, in Uribia, Guajira in the Guajira desert.
10WindsAre produced by differences between atmospheric pressure and temperature.In the case of Colombia, the winds that have the greatest influence on its climate are the trade winds.Trade winds from the northeast carry humidity to the region south of the equator and also carry rain to the rest of the country while the trade winds from the southeast carry humidity and heat to the northern hemisphere side of Colombia also, The winds coming from the Pacific Ocean modify the climate along the western coast of Colombia producing abundant precipitation year rounds
11Atmospheric preassure Air pressure is the force exerted on you by the weight of tiny particles of air (air molecules). Although air molecules are invisible, they still have weight and take up space. Since there's a lot of "empty" space between air molecules, air can be compressed to fit in a smaller volume.
12RainWater droplets form from air. As the warm air rises in the sky it cools. Water vapor (invisible water in the air) always exists in our air. Warm air holds quite a bit of water.When enough of these droplets collect together, we see them as clouds. If the clouds are big enough and have enough water droplets, the droplets bang together and form even bigger drops. When the drops get heavy, they fall because of gravity, and you see and feel rain.
13Conformed by like like Climate Factors Latitude Altitude Water masses ReliefElementsTemperatureHumidityWindsAtmospheric pressureRainConformed bylikelike
14Write T for true statements and F for false. Elements of the climate are the constant conditions that modify the climate. ( )Latitude is the angular measurement of the distance from the equator to any location on the Earth. ( )Depending on the humidity of a location determines the amount of sunlight that a location receives. ( )The tropical location of Colombia and the uniform solar radiation for being in the equator gives this country an almost constant temperature.
15Complete the following chart using the words in the box. Rain, Relief , Climate , Humidity, Water masses, Factors, Winds, Latitude , Elements , Atmospheric pressure , Altitude, Temperature
18Mountain climate is one of the unique features of the Andes, the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and other high altitude landform where climate is determined by elevation. These variations in climate depending on its altitude are called thermal thermal floors (Spanish: Pisos termicos), a classification used in some countries but with variations in the classification of each floor.
19Warm climate thermal floor The warm thermal floor oscillate between sea level and 1,000 meters (3,281 ft) above sea level with a temperature over 24 °C (75.2 °F). Climate in this step is characterized for its similarities with the equatorial and tropical plains, heavy rains and high temperatures. Temperatures can reach over 29 °C (84.2 °F) as it is the case of the Magdalena river valley, which has many areas with jungles. This thermal floor is present in the cities like Santa Marta, Neiva, Cali and Cucuta.
20Temperate climate thermal floor Between 1,000 and 2,000 meters (3,281 and 6,562 ft) above sea level the temperature drops oscillating between 17 and 22 °C (62.6 and 71.6 °F) defining it as a temperate climate. Rainfall becomes variable at 1,700 meters (5,577 ft) above sea level and rains between 2,000 and 2,500 mm (78.7 and 98.4 in) . This climate is a characteristic in the cities like Pereira, Armenia, Ibague Popayán and Medellín.
21Cold climate thermal floor The cold climate is present between 2,000 and 3,000 meters (6,562 and 9,843 ft) above sea level and is characterized for having Andean or cloud forests. This thermal floor is characterized for presenting an average temperature ranging between 10 and 17 °C (50 and 62.6 °F) while rainfall reaches a yearly average of 2,000 mm (78.7 in).The Colombian capital city Bogotá is located within this thermal floor. Other cities like San Juan de Pasto and Tunja are in this location.A not so common Hailstorm in Bogotá on March 3, 2006 product of a combination of altitude (low temperature at 2600 meters over sea level) and precipitation.
22Paramo climate thermal floor The Páramo climate is present between 3,000 and 4,000 meters (9,843 and 13,123 ft) above sea level and the temperature is lower than 10 °C (50 °F) with icy winds, rare rainfall but frequent snowfall. Colombia has one of the largest páramo areas in the world; the Páramo of Sumapaz located in central Colombia, over the Andean Cordillera Oriental Branch. IIn Colombia páramos are further classified as subpáramo, páramo and superpáramo. Most of the rivers in Colombia are born here since páramos tend to hold water from precipitations and deglaciations coming from the peaks.
23Glacial climate thermal floor The glaciers in Colombia are located at 4,000 meters (13,123 ft) above sea level and up and with average temperatures ranging between 10 °C (50 °F) and less. Glaciers in Colombia began retreating in the 20th century due to global warming and are in danger of disappearing, if this occurs water supply would be scarce in the near future. Most of the glaciers are located in the Andes mountains and are inhabited by very few living species due to its sever weather.