Presentation on theme: "Cells Big Ideas. Parts of the Cell Cell Membrane- The membrane that surrounds the cell. Controls what goes into and out of the cell Ribosomes -The sites."— Presentation transcript:
Parts of the Cell Cell Membrane- The membrane that surrounds the cell. Controls what goes into and out of the cell Ribosomes -The sites of protein synthesis. This is the “workbench” where proteins are put together. Nucleus- Organelle that manages or controls all of the cell functions in a eukaryotic cell. “The control center, which contains DNA.” Chloroplast- Uses solar energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen. Site of photosynthesis. Mitochondria- Produces a usable form of energy (ATP) for the cell. Uses glucose, oxygen and water to make ATP, which cells use for energy.
Protein Channel Protein Channel Outside of Cell Inside of Cell Cell Membrane Structure & Function How will molecules move? (direction & route)
Molecules moving across a cell membrane is called diffusion. Water moving across a cell membrane is called osmosis. Passive transport uses NO energy and Active transport uses energy. Cell Membrane Structure & Function
Mitosis Mitosis: produces two IDENTICAL cells from one cell for growth and repair
Meiosis Meiosis: produces four UNIQUE sex cells for reproduction – Females: Eggs – Males: Sperm Sex cells have half the DNA in a UNIQUE combination UNIQUE combinations allow for differences (variation) in populations
DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid; is a code for your physical (phenotype) traits - PHYSICAL TRAIT DNA & Genetics
DNA Structure DNA is a Double Helix – “Twisted Ladder” The rungs of the ladder are made of 4 distinct nucleotides – G, C, A and T
Making Proteins Transcription – DNA is read to make RNA Translation – RNA is read to make a protein
Proteins: can be used to make body structures, hormones and enzymes – Enzymes act to speed up (catalyze) chemical reactions in the body Ex. Digestion of food, making DNA, and regulating glucose
Genetics Vocabulary Phenotype: What you physically look like Ex. Blue Eyes OR Brown Eyes Genotype: What your genes are Ex. Bb, bb, or BB
Vocabulary Dominant: Trait/gene that is shown Ex. BB = Brown Eyes Bb = Brown Eyes Recessive: Trait/gene that is hidden by a dominant gene Ex. bb = Blue Eyes Bb = Brown Eyes
Vocabulary Heterozygous: different genes – Ex. Bb for Brown Eyes Homozygous: same genes – Ex. bb for Blue Eyes
Punnett Square: used to predict offspring – Ex. Two heterozygous bunnies are crossed; black fur is the dominant trait – Phenotype ratio Ex. 25% white bunnies, 75% black bunnies – Genotype ratio Ex. 25% bb, 50% Bb, 25% BB F F f f FFFf ff
Earlobes (E) A detached earlobe man (EE) has children with an attached earlobe woman (ee). 1)What are the possible genotypes (gene combination)? 2)What are the possible phenotypes (physical trait)?
Evolution Evolution: change over time All living things are related to a COMMON ANCESTOR!!!
Evidence of Evolution Fossil RecordHomologous Structures Homologous and Vestigial Structures Presence of Fossils found in rock layers
Evidence of Evolution DNA Comparisons Humans and mice are 99% similar in DNA, so they are closely related Humans and bananas are 55% similar in DNA, so they are NOT closely related Embryos Closely related organisms have similar embryos
Natural Selection Natural Selection: “survival of the fittest, failure of the worst” – The “goal” of life is to survive and reproduce – Based on ability to survive in environment
Mutations in DNA: can (not always) lead to unique traits, which may help or hinder survival!! OrganismEnvironmental Pressure TraitsWhich one survives? What genes become more common in population? Bunny Rabbits WinterBrown Fur –or- White Fur GiraffeTall TreesShort Neck –or- Long Neck
Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Big Ideas
Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are opposite chemical reactions
Photosynthesis: plants take carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and water (H 2 O) and make glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) and oxygen (O 2 ) – Plants make their own food!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Cellular Respiration: plants AND animals make energy (ATP) by transforming glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 )and oxygen (O 2 ) into carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and water (H 2 O) – CHEMICAL Energy in glucose is transformed into the energy to live (ATP) – Very similar to setting something on fire (combustion), which releases carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) into the atmosphere
Energy vs. Nutrients Energy flows through every ecological system – Inputs = what goes into the ecosystem – Outputs = what goes out of the ecosystem Nutrients cycle through every ecological system
Food Webs Increased biodiversity = a healthier ecosystem
Energy Transfer between Trophic Levels 10% Energy Transfer Producers make up largest biomass
Carbon Cycle Cycles carbon through the ecosystem Contains photosynthesis and cellular respiration – Opposite chemical reactions
Nitrogen Cycle Cycles nitrogen through the system Bacteria takes nitrogen from the atmosphere and transfers it to plants
Population Growth Populations will grow exponentially if there are no limiting factors Examples of limiting factors are: – Food – Water – Shelter – Space
Population Growth Populations will reach carrying capacity because of limiting factors which include: – Abiotic (non-living) Space & Water – Biotic (living) Food & Predators
Population Density Population Density is the number of living things in an area – Example: 500 moose in 10 sq. miles = 50 moose per square mile
General Ecology Non-native species usually DIE in a new environment, some survive and take over if they have no predators
Sustainability Maintaining resources for future use Choices we can make now that support sustainability – Substituting renewable (?) for non-renewable (?) resources – Recycling – Using fewer resources
Writing a Science Conclusion 1.Read the scenario – Write “things” or “stuff” above the words you don’t know 2.Look at the data table 3.Figure out the relationship between variables – Increase causes decrease OR decrease causes increase – Increase causes increase OR decrease causes decrease 4.Write conclusion based on DATA TABLE averages
Example Scenario Scenario: Tom and Jane wanted to find out how exposure to sunlight affected plant growth. Sunlight Exposure (hours) Plant Growth (cm) Trial 1Trial 2Trial 3Average 2 hrs1.52 2 4 hrs2.533.53 6 hrs4655 8 hrs10868 Data: Sunlight Exposure vs. Plant Growth
Example sentences for each conclusion bullet point “As sunlight increases, plant growth increases.” “8 hours of sunlight caused the greatest plant growth at 8cm and 2 hours of sunlight caused the least plant growth at 1cm.” “So the plant exposed to MOST sunlight grew 7cm MORE THAN the plant exposed to the least sunlight.” “The explanation for this is that plants need sunlight to go through photosynthesis to grow.”
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