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Marine Ecosystems Review. Ecology Ecology is the science that studies how living organisms relate to each other and their environment.

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Presentation on theme: "Marine Ecosystems Review. Ecology Ecology is the science that studies how living organisms relate to each other and their environment."— Presentation transcript:

1 Marine Ecosystems Review

2 Ecology Ecology is the science that studies how living organisms relate to each other and their environment

3 BIOTIC LIVING organisms Animals Plants Fungi Bacteria Protists

4 ABIOTIC NONLIVING aspects of the environment Temperature pH Currents Minerals Sunlight Rocks Water

5 HABITAT Where the organism lives Area and physical conditions where an organism lives It’s “ Address”

6 OCEAN ZONES

7 SALT MARSH – Coastal Ecosystem High Productivity Located in Estuaries Wet and dry, long grasses, thick mud, nutrients in sediment

8 SALT MARSH – ABIOTIC FACTORS Flooding Shallow water Sunlight Mud and Sediment Tides

9 SALT MARSH – BIOTIC FACTORS

10 SALT GRASSES Halophytes – Salt water plants….have adaptations allowing them to live in salt water ALGAE

11 Rich in organic material tree roots covered in water nursery to many growing organisms MANGROVE – Coastal Ecosystem Similar to Salt Marshes….bigger, tougher (trees)….found in tropical areas

12 MANGROVE – Abiotic Factors Mud Shallow Waters- sunlight Warm temperatures Many nutrients

13 MANGROVE TREES – Adaptations for life in salt water and mud with low oxygen Red Mangrove Has stilt like Roots Black Mangrove – roots below water. “snorkel like root structures called Pneumatophores”

14 MANGROVE – BIOTIC FACTORS

15 Why Mangrove Ecosystem Important? Mangrove Trees Large Entangled Roots…. 1. Provide habitats for juvenile fish and invertebrates 2. Hold soil well, protects shoreline from erosion from currents, waves, and storms

16 Coral Reef – Coastal Ecosystems Contintental Shelf Vast assortment of life, stony formation built from seafloor up, sunny, warm waters, colorful

17 Coral Reef – Abiotic Factors Sunlight Shallow water – moderate movement to prevent sediment from accomulating on polyps Warm Rocks Shells

18 Coral Reef – Biotic Factors

19 Kelp Forest – Coastal Ecosystems Contintental Shelf Sunny, Cool waters, appears like a dense forest with kelp growing from the seafloor to ocean surface

20 Kelp Forest – Abiotic Factors Rocky Coastlines Sunlight Clear Water Cool Temperatures

21 Kelp Forest – Biotic Factors

22 Open Ocean – Polar Artic

23 Arctic – Abiotic Factors Cold, Icy Water – often dominated by ice Ice and snow – reduces sunlight in water Much sunlight in summer, Little sunlight in winter Ocean surrounded by land - bordered by shallow continental shelves of NA, Greenland, Russia, Eurasia

24 Polar Seas – Arctic

25 Polar Seas – Antarctic

26 Antarctic – Abiotic Factors Cold Water – often dominated by ice Ice and snow – In winter…water at edges freeze adding an area the size of North America to the continent More Extreme Climate than Arctic Antarctica is a continent….not a frozen sea…it has its own continental shelf

27 Polar Seas – Antarctic Biotic Factors

28 Deep Sea Floor – Abiotic Factors Darkness Cold Deep water High Pressure No Photosynthesis occurs here Fewer communities here

29 Deep Sea Floor – Benthic

30 Marine Snow - is a continuous shower of mostly organic detritus (dead organisms & fecal matter) falling from the upper layers of the water.detritus

31 Whale Fall

32 Open Ocean

33 Open Ocean – Abiotic Factors Wide open spaces Available Sunlight Temperatures vary No land nearby

34 Open Ocean – Biotic Factors


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