31 Ponds, lakes, rivers, streams, puddles, and oceans
32 COMPONENTS OF AN ECOSYSTEM BIOTIC (living parts)ABIOTIC (nonliving parts)Producers (take sunlight and produce food)SunlightHerbivores (consumers that eat only plants)Precipitation (rain, snow, hail, etc.)Carnivores (consumers that eat only meat)Soil and RocksScavengers (consumers that feed on dead things left behind by predators or road kill)TemperatureOmnivores (consumers that eat both meat and plants)Minerals (nutrients)Decomposers (break down dead organisms and recycle the nutrients back to the environment)Water (ponds, lakes, rivers, etc.)
60 rctic tundra is in the northern hemisphere surrounding the north pole. ainfall and snow combined average is 6 to 10 inches yearly.oldest and driest of all the biomes.he only trees that grow in the tundra are the dwarf willows.ce melts during summer but can’t drain into the soil because it is frozen.overs 20% of the Earth’s surface.ARCTIC TUNDRAhe top layer of soil is called the active layer which melts during summer.nder the active layer is the permafrost which is frozen soil year round.ame“tundra”is from the Finnish word tunturia, meaning treeless plain.warf willow trees are only 4 inches tall.eferred to as a cold desert.verage winter temperature is –300 F and summer temp. is F.
74 The frigid cold and deep snow makes life in the tundra very difficult. Every animal must adapt in order to survive. Some have grown thick fur which turns white in the winter. Others find a place to hibernate during the winter months.The arctic tundra is at the top of the world -- around the North Pole. Animals are adapted to handle cold winters and to breed and raise young quickly in the very short and cool summers. Temperatures during the arctic winter can dip to -60 F (-51 C)! The average temperature of the warmest month is between 50 F (10 C) and 32 F (0 C). Sometimes as few as 55 days per year have a mean temperature higher than 32 F (0 C). The average annual temperature is only 10 to 20F (-12C to -6C). The soil is often frozen. Permafrost, or permanent ice, usually exists within a meter of the surface. Water is unavailable during most of the year. Annual precipitation is very low, usually less than 10 inches (25 centimeters)