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Chapter 8 8.1 How Organisms Obtain Energy 8.2 Photosynthesis 8.3 Cellular Respiration.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 8.1 How Organisms Obtain Energy 8.2 Photosynthesis 8.3 Cellular Respiration."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter How Organisms Obtain Energy 8.2 Photosynthesis 8.3 Cellular Respiration

2 Comprehension Check How many characteristics of living things can you remember? Which characteristic is related to this chapter?

3 All Organisms Need Energy All organisms require energy to live. There are two main ways to obtain this necessary energy: All organisms require energy to live. There are two main ways to obtain this necessary energy: Autotrophs: Make their own sugar from sunlight and then convert that sugar into energy Autotrophs: Make their own sugar from sunlight and then convert that sugar into energy Heterotrophs: Have to eat food to get sugar and then convert that sugar into energy Heterotrophs: Have to eat food to get sugar and then convert that sugar into energy AUTOTROPHS HETEROTROPHS

4 Connection Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Metabolism: all of the chemical reactions that take place in your cells Metabolism: all of the chemical reactions that take place in your cells Photosynthesis Photosynthesis reaction that takes place in plant cells reaction that takes place in plant cells sunlight is stored as energy in sugar sunlight is stored as energy in sugar Cellular Respiration Cellular Respiration reaction that takes place in all living things reaction that takes place in all living things Sugar is converted into energy that the organism can use Sugar is converted into energy that the organism can use

5 Cells use Energy - Cells find energy by breaking bonds in a very special molecule called... ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE ATP ~

6 Overview of Photosynthesis Definition: The process in which plants use the energy of sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugar and oxygen Location: Chloroplasts CO 2 + H 2 0  C 6 H 12 O

7 Cells A Student placed a freshwater aquarium containing aquatic plants in a laboratory window and monitored oxygen levels in the water from early morning to noon. They observed a steady rise in dissolved oxygen levels from morning until noon. What is the best explanation for this observation? a.The sunlight increased the temperature resulting in more oxygen exchange between the air and water. b.The plants began photosynthesis resulting in less oxygen use by the plants. c.The plants began photosynthesis resulting in oxygen release from the plants. d.There were fish in the water that released oxygen from their gills.

8 Cells A Student placed a freshwater aquarium containing aquatic plants in a laboratory window and monitored oxygen levels in the water from early morning to noon. They observed a steady rise in dissolved oxygen levels from morning until noon. What is the best explanation for this observation? a.The sunlight increased the temperature resulting in more oxygen exchange between the air and water. b.The plants began photosynthesis resulting in less oxygen use by the plants. c.The plants began photosynthesis resulting in oxygen release from the plants. d.There were fish in the water that released oxygen from their gills.

9 Pigments in plants Why do leaves appear as different colors? Pigments: proteins that trap light energy from the sun Major Pigment  Chlorophyll : green Accessory Pigments  Carotenoid: orange  Xanthophyll: yellow

10 Chromatography  ape/labdocs/catofp/chromato/tlc/video/ mov ape/labdocs/catofp/chromato/tlc/video/ mov ape/labdocs/catofp/chromato/tlc/video/ mov  Can be used to separate plant pigments based on their molecular size  R f Values: Distance Pigment Moved (mm) Distance Solvent Moved (mm)

11 Comprehension Check What types of organisms need energy? What types of organisms can make their own energy? What type of energy do cells (our bodies) use?

12 Cellular Respiration: Cellular Respiration: DEFINITION: DEFINITION: Cells of all living organisms using sugar to make ATP All living organisms go through this process (remember characteristics of life... Require energy!) Location: Mitochondria FACT: A working muscle cell converts ADP to ATP at a rate of 10 million molecules per second C 6 H  6CO 2 +6H 2 O +Energy

13 Cells B A scientist is using transparent (light-penetrating) bottles are opaque (light- blocking) bottle to measure the productivity of algae pond water. Equal amounts of pond water are put in both bottles, which are then capped. They are then placed in the pond at a depth of 0.5 meters at 6:00am. The pond water was collected at 10:00am the same day. Which of the following results is the scientist likely to observe? a.The transparent bottle has a higher concentration of dissolved oxygen than the opaque bottle. b.The transparent bottle has a lower concentration of dissolved oxygen than the opaque bottle. c.The total phosphorus concentration will be greater than the transparent bottle. d.The total phosphorus concentration will be greater in the opaque bottle.

14 Cells B A scientist is using transparent (light-penetrating) bottles are opaque (light- blocking) bottle to measure the productivity of algae pond water. Equal amounts of pond water are put in both bottles, which are then capped. They are then placed in the pond at a depth of 0.5 meters at 6:00am. The pond water was collected at 10:00am the same day. Which of the following results is the scientist likely to observe? a.The transparent bottle has a higher concentration of dissolved oxygen than the opaque bottle. b.The transparent bottle has a lower concentration of dissolved oxygen than the opaque bottle. c.The total phosphorus concentration will be greater than the transparent bottle. d.The total phosphorus concentration will be greater in the opaque bottle.

15 There are 2 Types of Cellular Respiration: 1.Aerobic Respiration –Making ATP using oxygen 2. Anaerobic Respiration –Making ATP without oxygen –Creates a byproduct Alcohol: Yeast, Some Bacteria Lactic acid: Humans

16 Comprehension Check Take a clothespin from your teacher and squeeze it between your thumb and pointer finger for 60 seconds Describe how your hand feels after 60 seconds. How are the cells in your fingers making energy from sugar right now? What would be happening if you were running around the room while doing this activity?

17 Comparing Cellular Respiration to Photosynthesis Photosynthesis Cellular Respiration (AEROBIC) (AEROBIC) Function Location Reactants Products Equation Equation

18 Comparing Cellular Respiration to Photosynthesis Photosynthesis Cellular Respiration (AEROBIC) (AEROBIC) Function Produce Glucose Produce ATP LocationChloroplastsMitochondria Reactants Carbon Dioxide WaterGlucoseOxygen ProductsGlucoseOxygen Water Equation Equation 6CO 2 +6H 2 0  C 6 H 12 O C 6 H  6CO 2 +6H 2 O + ATP


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