Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

19 Air Pollution. Atmosphere  Atmospheric Composition  Nitrogen 78.08%  Oxygen 20.95% *  Argon 0.93%  Carbon dioxide 0.04% *  Other gases & pollutants.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "19 Air Pollution. Atmosphere  Atmospheric Composition  Nitrogen 78.08%  Oxygen 20.95% *  Argon 0.93%  Carbon dioxide 0.04% *  Other gases & pollutants."— Presentation transcript:

1 19 Air Pollution

2 Atmosphere  Atmospheric Composition  Nitrogen 78.08%  Oxygen 20.95% *  Argon 0.93%  Carbon dioxide 0.04% *  Other gases & pollutants Much lower conc.  Ecosystem services  Blocks UV radiation  Moderates the climate  Redistributes water in the hydrologic cycle

3 Air Pollution - Terminology  Air Pollution  Chemicals added to the atmosphere by natural events or human activities in high enough concentrations to be harmful  Two categories  Primary Air Pollutant Harmful substance emitted directly into the atmosphere  Secondary Air Pollutant Harmful substance formed in the atmosphere when a primary air pollutant reacts with substances normally found in the atmosphere or with other air pollutants

4 Major Classes of Air Pollutants  Particulate Material  Nitrogen Oxides  Sulfur Oxides  Carbon Oxides  Hydrocarbons  Ozone  Lead

5 Major Air Pollutants

6 Two main human sources of primary air pollutants - Industry - Transportation

7 Particulate Material  Particulate Matter  Solid or liquid particles suspended in air soil particles, soot, lead, asbestos, sea salt, & sulfuric acid droplets  Dangerous  May contain materials with toxic/carcinogenic effects  Small particles can become lodged in lungs

8 Nitrogen & Sulfur Oxides  Nitrogen Oxides  Gases produced by the chemical interactions between atmospheric nitrogen and oxygen at high temperature  Greenhouse gases that cause difficulty breathing  Sulfur Oxides  Gases produced by the chemical interactions between sulfur and oxygen  Causes acid precipitation

9 Carbon Oxides & Hydrocarbons  Carbon Oxides  Gases carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 )  Greenhouse gases  Hydrocarbons  Organic compounds that contain only hydrogen & carbon (ex: CH 4 - methane)  Some are related to photochemical smog & greenhouse gases  Photochemical smog - It is the chemical reaction of sunlight, nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons in the atmosphere

10 Formation of Photochemical Smog © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

11 Urban Air Pollution  Photochemical Smog (ex: Los Angeles below)  Brownish-orange haze formed by chemical reactions involving sunlight, nitrogen oxide, and hydrocarbons Pollution is linked to: Immune system sup. Inf. of respiratory track Chronic bronchitis Increased drowsiness Impaired reflexes

12 Ozone  Tropospheric Ozone (Bad)  Man-made pollutant in the lower atmosphere  Secondary air pollutant  Component of photochemical smog  Stratospheric Ozone (Good)  Essential component that screens out UV radiation in the upper atmosphere  Man- made pollutants (ex: CFCs) can destroy it

13 Ozone Damage to Grape Leaves

14 Sources of Outdoor Affects ozone Air Pollution in So. Cal.  Two main sourcesHigh temps  TransportationHydrocarbons  IndustrySunlight & water vapor Sources of Smog in Los Angeles

15 Effects of Air Pollution  Low level exposure  Irritates eyes  Causes inflammation of respiratory tract  Can develop into chronic respiratory diseases  Greater health threat to children than adults  Air pollution can restrict lung development  Children breath more often than adults  Children who live in high ozone areas are more likely to develop asthma

16 Controlling Air Pollution  Smokestacks w/ electrostatic precipitator  Electrode imparts negative charge on the air pollutants  Negatively charged pollutants are then attracted to positively charged walls & fall into collector  Smokestacks w/ scrubbers  Water or other fluid to dissolve particulates then the water is sent through a filter Both are primarily used to remove particulate matter

17 Scrubbers Emissions not controlled- heavily polluted Emissions controlled with scrubbers-only steam expelled

18 Controlling Air Pollution  Phase I Vapor Recovery System for gasoline

19 The Clean Air Act  Authorizes EPA to set limits on amount of specific air pollutants permitted  Focuses on 6 pollutants:  lead, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, & ozone  Act has led to decreases in air pollutants  Most dramatic is lead - decreased by 98% since 1970 (due to switch to unleaded gasoline)


21 Ozone Depletion in Stratosphere  Ozone Protects earth from UV radiation

22 Ozone Depletion in Stratosphere  Ozone (O 3 ) thinning/hole  First identified in 1985 over Antarctica  a steady decline of about 4% per decade in the total volume of ozone  Caused by human-produced bromine and chlorine containing chemicals (Ex: CFCs)

23 Ozone Depletion  Hole over Antarctica requires two conditions:  Sunlight  Circumpolar vortex a mass of cold air that circulates around the polar region  Effects of Ozone Depletion  Higher levels of UV-radiation hitting the earth Eye cataracts Skin cancer  May disrupt ecosystems  May damage crops and forests

24 Recovery of Ozone Layer  Montreal Protocol (1987)  Reduction of CFCs  Started using HCFCs (greenhouse gas)  Phase out of all ozone destroying chemicals  This is underway globally  Satellite pictures in 2000 indicated that ozone layer was recovering  Full recovery will not occur until ~2050

25 Acid Deposition  Sulfur dioxide & nitrogen dioxide emissions react with water vapor in the atmosphere & form acids that return to the surface pH scale

26 How Acid Deposition Develops

27 Effects of Acid Deposition  Declining Aquatic Animal Populations  Thin-shelled eggs prevent bird reproduction  Calcium is unavailable in acidic soil  Forest decline  Black Forest in Germany

28 Acid Deposition and Forest Decline © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

29 Lead (Pb) in the Air  Metal found naturally in the environment as well as in manufactured products.  “Back in the day” Major source of Pb in the air:  Cars and trucks  As a result the EPA banned Pd from gasoline  Since the ban 95% < in lead emissions  Today the highest levels of Pd emissions are:  Ore & metals processing  piston-engine aircraft operating on leaded aviation gasoline

30 Exposure to Lead (Pb) in the Air  Causes  Behavior problems  Headaches  Hearing problems  Permanently reduced cognitive abilities  Effects the - nervous system, kidney function, immune system, reproductive and developmental systems and the cardiovascular system  Children are more sensitive to low levels of exposure

31 Air Pollution Around the World  Air quality deteriorating rapidly in developing countries  Have older cars  Don’t generally have scrubbers (expensive)  Some of the worst cities in world  Beijing, China  Calcutta, India  Mexico City, Mexico  Shanghai, China  Shenyang, China  Tehran, Iran Some of these cities residents only see sunlight a few weeks each year

32 Case-In-Point Air Pollution in Beijing and Mexico City Beijing Mexico City

33 Long Distance Transport of Air Pollutants (Pollution - not just a local issue) Global Distillation Effect

34 Indoor Air Pollution  Pollutants can be 5–100x greater than outdoors  Radon, cigarette smoke, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde pesticides, lead, cleaning solvents, ozone, and asbestos

35 Indoor Air Pollution / Radon

Download ppt "19 Air Pollution. Atmosphere  Atmospheric Composition  Nitrogen 78.08%  Oxygen 20.95% *  Argon 0.93%  Carbon dioxide 0.04% *  Other gases & pollutants."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google