Presentation on theme: "Table of Contents The Plant Kingdom Photosynthesis and Light"— Presentation transcript:
1Table of Contents The Plant Kingdom Photosynthesis and Light Mosses, Liverworts, and HornwortsFerns, Club Mosses, and Horsetails
2What Is a Plant? - The Plant Kingdom Nearly all plants are autotrophs-produce their own food.All plants are eukaryotescontain many cellsall plant cells are surrounded by cell walls.
3Adaptations for living on land Obtaining water and other nutrientsRetaining water- cuticle/ reduce water lossTransporting materials-vascular tissue/ tubelike structures- carry food, water, mineralsSupportReproduction –zygot / fertilized egg
4Classifying plants - The Plant Kingdom Nonvascular- don’t have a system of tubes/ low growing, do not have rootsVascular –have vascular tissue/ tallOrigin of plants- green algae
5Complex Life Cycles - The Plant Kingdom Plants have complex life cycles that include two different stages:Sporophyte- plant produces sporesGametophyte- plant produces two kinds of sex cells: sperm cell and egg cell.
6- The Plant KingdomWater Loss in PlantsThe graph shows how much water a certain plant loses during the hours shown.
7Water Loss in Plants - The Plant Kingdom Reading Graphs: What variable is plotted along each axis?Horizontal axis–time of day; vertical axis–water loss.
8Water Loss in Plants - The Plant Kingdom Interpreting Data: According to the graph, during what part of the day did the plant lose the most water? The least water?Most–midday; least–in the evening.
9Water Loss in Plants - The Plant Kingdom Drawing Conclusions: What could account for the pattern of water loss shown?The plant seemed to lose the most water during the sunniest or warmest parts of the day.
10Water Loss in Plants - The Plant Kingdom Predicting: How would you expect the graph to look from 10 p.m. to 8 a.m.? Explain your reasoning.The line graph would descend during the night and then rise again in the morning hours, because the water loss is less during the night when there is no sun.
11Building Vocabulary - The Plant Kingdom A definition states the meaning of a word or phrase by telling about its most important feature or function. After you read the section, reread the paragraphs that contain definitions of Key Terms. Use all the information you have learned to write a definition of each Key Term in your own words.Key Terms:Examples:nonvascular plantvascular plantchlorophyllKey Terms:Examples:sporophytegametophyteKey Terms:Examples:cuticlevascular tissuefertilizationzygoteKey Terms:Examples:photosynthesisPlants that lack a well-developed system of tubes for transporting water and other materials are known as nonvascular plants.Sunlight provides the energy for this food-making process, called photosynthesis.In the sporophyte stage, the plant produces spores, tiny cells that can grow into new organisms.One adaptation that helps a plant reduce water loss is a waxy, waterproof layer called the cuticle, which covers the leaves of most plants.tissueNo matter how large or small a plant is, its cells are organized into tissues—groups of similar cells that perform a specific function in an organism.In the gametophyte stage, the plant produces two kinds of sex cells: sperm cells and egg cells.Vascular tissue is a system of tubelike structures inside a plant through which water, minerals, and food move.Plants with true vascular tissue are called vascular plants.chloroplastChloroplasts, which look something like green jelly beans, are the structures in which food is made.Biologists studied a green pigment called chlorophyll, found in the chloroplasts of plants, algae, and some bacteria.Fertilization occurs when a sperm cell unites with an egg cell.vacuoleA vacuole is a large storage sac that can expand and shrink like a balloon.A fertilized egg is called a zygote.
12The Photosynthesis Process - Photosynthesis and LightThe Photosynthesis ProcessIn photosynthesis, the energy in sunlight is used to make sugarand oxygen fromcarbon dioxide and water.
13Previewing Visuals - Photosynthesis and Light Preview Figure 9. Then write three questions that you have about the diagram in a graphic organizer like the one below. As you read, answer your questions.Water Vascular SystemQ. How is sunlight involved in photosynthesis?A. The energy in sunlight is used to make sugar.Q. Why does a plant need sugar?A. The plant uses energy from the sugar to carry out life functions.Q. How does the plant use the water its roots take in?A. Water molecules combine with carbon dioxide to form sugar and oxygen during photosynthesis
14Click the Video button to watch a movie about photosynthesis. - Photosynthesis and LightPhotosynthesisClick the Video button to watch a movie about photosynthesis.
15Identifying Main Ideas - Mosses, Liverworts, and HornwortsIdentifying Main IdeasNonvascular plantsLive in moist areaAbsorb water and nutrients directly from the environmentinclude…Main IdeaDetailDetailDetailMossesLiverwortsHornworts
16Mosses - Plants Without Seeds: Mosses, Liverworts, and Hornworts More than 10, 000 speciesA moss gametophyte is low-growing and has structures that look like roots, stems, and leaves. The stalklike sporophyte generation remains attached to the gametophyte.The rhizoids anchor the moss and absorbs water and nutrients from the soil
17Mossses, Liverworts, and Hornworts More than 8 ooo speciesGrow as a thick crust on moist rock or soilHornwortsFewer than 100 speciesLiv ein moist soil often mixed with grass plants
18Characteristics of Seedless Vascular Plants - Ferns, Club Mosses, and HorsetailsCharacteristics of Seedless Vascular PlantsFerns, club mosses, and horsetails share two characteristics:They have true vascular tissuethey do not produce seedsreproduce by releasing spores.
19Ferns - Ferns, Club Mosses, and Horsetails Most ferns have underground stems in addition to roots.The leaves, or fronds, grow above ground.
20Ferns, Club Mosses, a Ferns, Club Mosses, and Horsetails nd Horsetails Joined stems; needle branchesClub mossesOnly few hundred speciesSimilar to fernsHave vascular tissue
21Ferns, Club Mosses, and Horsetails Asking QuestionsBefore you read, preview the red headings. In a graphic organizer like the one below, ask a what, how, or where question for each heading. As you read, write the answers to your questions.Ferns, Club Mosses, and HorsetailsQuestionAnswerWhat are the characteristics of seedless vascular plants?Seedless vascular plants have vascular tissue; they do not produce seeds; they reproduce by releasing spores.How do ferns reproduce?Ferns reproduce by spores that form on the underside of their fronds.How do club mosses differ from true mosses?Club mosses have vascular tissue.
22Graphic Organizer Characteristic Moss Fern Size Small and low Can be tallEnvironmentMoistMoistRootlike, stemlike,leaflike structuresTrue roots,stems, and leavesBody partsFamiliar generationGametophyteSporophyteIs true vasculartissue present?NoYes