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Mosses, Liverworts, and Hornworts Ferns, Club Mosses, and Horsetails

What Is a Plant? - The Plant Kingdom
Nearly all plants are autotrophs-produce their own food. All plants are eukaryotes contain many cells all plant cells are surrounded by cell walls.

Obtaining water and other nutrients Retaining water- cuticle/ reduce water loss Transporting materials-vascular tissue/ tubelike structures- carry food, water, minerals Support Reproduction –zygot / fertilized egg

Classifying plants - The Plant Kingdom
Nonvascular- don’t have a system of tubes/ low growing, do not have roots Vascular –have vascular tissue/ tall Origin of plants- green algae

Complex Life Cycles - The Plant Kingdom
Plants have complex life cycles that include two different stages: Sporophyte- plant produces spores Gametophyte- plant produces two kinds of sex cells: sperm cell and egg cell.

- The Plant Kingdom Water Loss in Plants The graph shows how much water a certain plant loses during the hours shown.

Water Loss in Plants - The Plant Kingdom Reading Graphs:
What variable is plotted along each axis? Horizontal axis–time of day; vertical axis–water loss.

Water Loss in Plants - The Plant Kingdom Interpreting Data:
According to the graph, during what part of the day did the plant lose the most water? The least water? Most–midday; least–in the evening.

Water Loss in Plants - The Plant Kingdom Drawing Conclusions:
What could account for the pattern of water loss shown? The plant seemed to lose the most water during the sunniest or warmest parts of the day.

Water Loss in Plants - The Plant Kingdom Predicting:
How would you expect the graph to look from 10 p.m. to 8 a.m.? Explain your reasoning. The line graph would descend during the night and then rise again in the morning hours, because the water loss is less during the night when there is no sun.

Building Vocabulary - The Plant Kingdom
A definition states the meaning of a word or phrase by telling about its most important feature or function. After you read the section, reread the paragraphs that contain definitions of Key Terms. Use all the information you have learned to write a definition of each Key Term in your own words. Key Terms: Examples: nonvascular plant vascular plant chlorophyll Key Terms: Examples: sporophyte gametophyte Key Terms: Examples: cuticle vascular tissue fertilization zygote Key Terms: Examples: photosynthesis Plants that lack a well-developed system of tubes for transporting water and other materials are known as nonvascular plants. Sunlight provides the energy for this food-making process, called photosynthesis. In the sporophyte stage, the plant produces spores, tiny cells that can grow into new organisms. One adaptation that helps a plant reduce water loss is a waxy, waterproof layer called the cuticle, which covers the leaves of most plants. tissue No matter how large or small a plant is, its cells are organized into tissues—groups of similar cells that perform a specific function in an organism. In the gametophyte stage, the plant produces two kinds of sex cells: sperm cells and egg cells. Vascular tissue is a system of tubelike structures inside a plant through which water, minerals, and food move. Plants with true vascular tissue are called vascular plants. chloroplast Chloroplasts, which look something like green jelly beans, are the structures in which food is made. Biologists studied a green pigment called chlorophyll, found in the chloroplasts of plants, algae, and some bacteria. Fertilization occurs when a sperm cell unites with an egg cell. vacuole A vacuole is a large storage sac that can expand and shrink like a balloon. A fertilized egg is called a zygote.

The Photosynthesis Process
- Photosynthesis and Light The Photosynthesis Process In photosynthesis, the energy in sunlight is used to make sugar and oxygen from carbon dioxide and water.

Previewing Visuals - Photosynthesis and Light
Preview Figure 9. Then write three questions that you have about the diagram in a graphic organizer like the one below. As you read, answer your questions. Water Vascular System Q. How is sunlight involved in photosynthesis? A. The energy in sunlight is used to make sugar. Q. Why does a plant need sugar? A. The plant uses energy from the sugar to carry out life functions. Q. How does the plant use the water its roots take in? A. Water molecules combine with carbon dioxide to form sugar and oxygen during photosynthesis

Click the Video button to watch a movie about photosynthesis.
- Photosynthesis and Light Photosynthesis Click the Video button to watch a movie about photosynthesis.

Identifying Main Ideas
- Mosses, Liverworts, and Hornworts Identifying Main Ideas Nonvascular plants Live in moist area Absorb water and nutrients directly from the environment include… Main Idea Detail Detail Detail Mosses Liverworts Hornworts

Mosses - Plants Without Seeds: Mosses, Liverworts, and Hornworts
More than 10, 000 species A moss gametophyte is low-growing and has structures that look like roots, stems, and leaves. The stalklike sporophyte generation remains attached to the gametophyte. The rhizoids anchor the moss and absorbs water and nutrients from the soil

Mossses, Liverworts, and Hornworts
More than 8 ooo species Grow as a thick crust on moist rock or soil Hornworts Fewer than 100 species Liv ein moist soil often mixed with grass plants

Characteristics of Seedless Vascular Plants
- Ferns, Club Mosses, and Horsetails Characteristics of Seedless Vascular Plants Ferns, club mosses, and horsetails share two characteristics: They have true vascular tissue they do not produce seeds reproduce by releasing spores.

Ferns - Ferns, Club Mosses, and Horsetails
Most ferns have underground stems in addition to roots. The leaves, or fronds, grow above ground.

Ferns, Club Mosses, a Ferns, Club Mosses, and Horsetails nd Horsetails
Joined stems; needle branches Club mosses Only few hundred species Similar to ferns Have vascular tissue

Ferns, Club Mosses, and Horsetails
Asking Questions Before you read, preview the red headings. In a graphic organizer like the one below, ask a what, how, or where question for each heading. As you read, write the answers to your questions. Ferns, Club Mosses, and Horsetails Question Answer What are the characteristics of seedless vascular plants? Seedless vascular plants have vascular tissue; they do not produce seeds; they reproduce by releasing spores. How do ferns reproduce? Ferns reproduce by spores that form on the underside of their fronds. How do club mosses differ from true mosses? Club mosses have vascular tissue.

Graphic Organizer Characteristic Moss Fern Size Small and low
Can be tall Environment Moist Moist Rootlike, stemlike, leaflike structures True roots, stems, and leaves Body parts Familiar generation Gametophyte Sporophyte Is true vascular tissue present? No Yes