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Introduction to Plants The Plant Kingdom Photosynthesis and Light Mosses, Liverworts, and Hornworts Ferns, Club Mosses, and Horsetails Table of Contents.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Plants The Plant Kingdom Photosynthesis and Light Mosses, Liverworts, and Hornworts Ferns, Club Mosses, and Horsetails Table of Contents."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Plants The Plant Kingdom Photosynthesis and Light Mosses, Liverworts, and Hornworts Ferns, Club Mosses, and Horsetails Table of Contents

2 Introduction to Plants What Is a Plant? Nearly all plants are autotrophs-produce their own food. All plants are eukaryotes contain many cells all plant cells are surrounded by cell walls. - The Plant Kingdom

3 Introduction to Plants Adaptations for living on land Obtaining water and other nutrients Retaining water- cuticle/ reduce water loss Transporting materials-vascular tissue/ tubelike structures- carry food, water, minerals Support Reproduction –zygot / fertilized egg

4 Introduction to Plants Classifying plants Nonvascular- don’t have a system of tubes/ low growing, do not have roots Vascular –have vascular tissue/ tall Origin of plants- green algae - The Plant Kingdom

5 Introduction to Plants Complex Life Cycles Plants have complex life cycles that include two different stages: Sporophyte- plant produces spores Gametophyte- plant produces two kinds of sex cells: sperm cell and egg cell. - The Plant Kingdom

6 Introduction to Plants Water Loss in Plants The graph shows how much water a certain plant loses during the hours shown. - The Plant Kingdom

7 Introduction to Plants Water Loss in Plants Horizontal axis–time of day; vertical axis–water loss. Reading Graphs: What variable is plotted along each axis? - The Plant Kingdom

8 Introduction to Plants Water Loss in Plants Most–midday; least–in the evening. Interpreting Data: According to the graph, during what part of the day did the plant lose the most water? The least water? - The Plant Kingdom

9 Introduction to Plants Water Loss in Plants The plant seemed to lose the most water during the sunniest or warmest parts of the day. Drawing Conclusions: What could account for the pattern of water loss shown? - The Plant Kingdom

10 Introduction to Plants Water Loss in Plants The line graph would descend during the night and then rise again in the morning hours, because the water loss is less during the night when there is no sun. Predicting: How would you expect the graph to look from 10 p.m. to 8 a.m.? Explain your reasoning. - The Plant Kingdom

11 Introduction to Plants A definition states the meaning of a word or phrase by telling about its most important feature or function. After you read the section, reread the paragraphs that contain definitions of Key Terms. Use all the information you have learned to write a definition of each Key Term in your own words. - The Plant Kingdom Key Terms:Examples: photosynthesisSunlight provides the energy for this food-making process, called photosynthesis. tissueNo matter how large or small a plant is, its cells are organized into tissues—groups of similar cells that perform a specific function in an organism. chloroplastChloroplasts, which look something like green jelly beans, are the structures in which food is made. vacuoleA vacuole is a large storage sac that can expand and shrink like a balloon. Key Terms:Examples: cuticle vascular tissue fertilization zygote One adaptation that helps a plant reduce water loss is a waxy, waterproof layer called the cuticle, which covers the leaves of most plants. Vascular tissue is a system of tubelike structures inside a plant through which water, minerals, and food move. Fertilization occurs when a sperm cell unites with an egg cell. A fertilized egg is called a zygote. Key Terms:Examples: nonvascular plant vascular plant chlorophyll Plants that lack a well-developed system of tubes for transporting water and other materials are known as nonvascular plants. Plants with true vascular tissue are called vascular plants. Biologists studied a green pigment called chlorophyll, found in the chloroplasts of plants, algae, and some bacteria. Key Terms:Examples: sporophyte gametophyte In the sporophyte stage, the plant produces spores, tiny cells that can grow into new organisms. In the gametophyte stage, the plant produces two kinds of sex cells: sperm cells and egg cells. Building Vocabulary

12 Introduction to Plants The Photosynthesis Process In photosynthesis, the energy in sunlight is used to make sugar and oxygen from carbon dioxide and water. - Photosynthesis and Light

13 Introduction to Plants Preview Figure 9. Then write three questions that you have about the diagram in a graphic organizer like the one below. As you read, answer your questions. Q. How is sunlight involved in photosynthesis? A. The energy in sunlight is used to make sugar. Q. Why does a plant need sugar? A. The plant uses energy from the sugar to carry out life functions. Water Vascular System Q. How does the plant use the water its roots take in? A. Water molecules combine with carbon dioxide to form sugar and oxygen during photosynthesis - Photosynthesis and Light Previewing Visuals

14 Introduction to Plants Photosynthesis Click the Video button to watch a movie about photosynthesis. - Photosynthesis and Light

15 Introduction to Plants Main Idea Detail Nonvascular plants Live in moist area Absorb water and nutrients directly from the environment include… MossesLiverwortsHornworts - Mosses, Liverworts, and Hornworts Identifying Main Ideas

16 Introduction to Plants Mosses More than 10, 000 species A moss gametophyte is low-growing and has structures that look like roots, stems, and leaves. The stalklike sporophyte generation remains attached to the gametophyte. The rhizoids anchor the moss and absorbs water and nutrients from the soil - Plants Without Seeds: Mosses, Liverworts, and Hornworts

17 Introduction to Plants Mossses, Liverworts, and Hornworts Liverworts More than 8 ooo species Grow as a thick crust on moist rock or soil Hornworts Fewer than 100 species Liv ein moist soil often mixed with grass plants

18 Introduction to Plants Characteristics of Seedless Vascular Plants Ferns, club mosses, and horsetails share two characteristics: They have true vascular tissue they do not produce seeds reproduce by releasing spores. - Ferns, Club Mosses, and Horsetails

19 Introduction to Plants Ferns Most ferns have underground stems in addition to roots. The leaves, or fronds, grow above ground. - Ferns, Club Mosses, and Horsetails

20 Introduction to Plants Ferns, Club Mosses, a Ferns, Club Mosses, and Horsetails nd Horsetails Horsetails Joined stems; needle branches Club mosses Only few hundred species Similar to ferns Have vascular tissue

21 Introduction to Plants QuestionAnswer What are the characteristics of seedless vascular plants? Seedless vascular plants have vascular tissue; they do not produce seeds; they reproduce by releasing spores. How do ferns reproduce?Ferns reproduce by spores that form on the underside of their fronds. How do club mosses differ from true mosses? Club mosses have vascular tissue. Asking Questions Before you read, preview the red headings. In a graphic organizer like the one below, ask a what, how, or where question for each heading. As you read, write the answers to your questions. Ferns, Club Mosses, and Horsetails - Ferns, Club Mosses, and Horsetails

22 Introduction to Plants Graphic Organizer Small and low Moist True roots, stems, and leaves Gametophyte Yes CharacteristicMossFern Can be tall Size Moist Environment Body parts Rootlike, stemlike, leaflike structures Sporophyte No Familiar generation Is true vascular tissue present?


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