6Levels of Organization Species (individual)PopulationsA group of organisms that can breed and produce offspringExample: LadybugsGroups of individuals of the same species and live in the same areaExample: Population of Ladybugs
7Levels of Organization CommunitiesGroups of populations that live in the same areaWhat organisms do you see in this pond community?
8Levels of Organization EcosystemGroup of organisms that live in one environment, together with their nonliving (abiotic) environmentAbiotic Factors: Biotic Factors:
9List the abiotic and biotic factors in the picture..
10Levels of Organization EcosystemAbiotic FactorsAirWindWaterLightTemperatureSunGasesBiotic FactorsSharkTunaBaleen whaleZooplanktonPhytoplanktonSmall fishesFlounderAlgaeScallopsSea starslobster
11Levels of Organization - Biomes A group of ecosystems that have the same climate and communitiesExamples:DesertGrasslandsRain ForestOcean
12Levels of Organization BiosphereHighest level of organization that includes all of the other levels of organization
13Checkpoint 1: Correct Answer? C: Ecosystem A collection of all the organisms that live in a particular place along with their physical environment make up a (an):SpeciesBiomeEcosystemCorrect Answer?C: Ecosystem
14Now create a sentence to remember the order! Checkpoint 2:List the six different levels of organization that ecologists study, in order, from smallest to largest.SpeciesPopulationsCommunitiesEcosystemBiomeBiosphereNow create a sentence to remember the order!
15Checkpoint 3:The branch of biology dealing with interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment is called _______________.A person who studies these populations is called an ecologist.ECOLOGY
16Checkpoint 4:All of the members of a particular species that live in one area are called a (an) ___________________.Draw your own population of species that you may have seen in the past week.POPULATION
17Complete this worksheet with your table partner:
183-2 Energy Flow Key Concepts Where does the energy for life processes come from?How does energy flow though living systems?How efficient is the transfer of energy among organisms in an ecosystem?
19Sunlight Main energy source for life on Earth. 1%Main energy source for life on Earth.Less than 1% is used by living things.However, some types of organisms rely on the energy stored in inorganic chemical compounds. These organisms obtain energy from a source other than sunlight.
20Who Uses the Sun for energy? Only plants, some algae, and certain bacteria can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use that energy to produce food.
21Use energy (sun, chemical) from the environment to make complex organic molecules. Autotrophs make their own food.Autotrophs
22Autotrophs Autotrophs PRODUCERS A form of an autotroph (makes own food)Can capture sunlight or chemical energyExample: KELPKelp is found in the ocean
23In Water: Photosynthetic Bacteria Autotroph HALL OF FAMEOn Land: PLANTSIn Water: ALGAEUse photosynthesisUse sunlight to make energy rich sugars and oxygenFound in freshwater and top layers of the oceanIn Water: Photosynthetic Bacteria
24Autotroph HALL OF FAME (with a twist) ChemosynthesisCan produce food without light!Use chemical energy to producecarbohydratesThese bacteria are found in remote places like:Volcanic vents on ocean floorHot springs in YellowstoneTidal marshes
26HeterotrophsAnimals, fungi, and many bacteria cannot harness their own energy.Heterotrophs rely on other organisms for their energy and food supplyHeterotrophsCONSUMERSA form of an Heterotroph(cannot make own food)Acquire energy from other organismsDifferent types of heterotrophs: herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, detritivores, and decomposers
33Feeding Relationships Energy flows through an ecosystem in one direction,1) Sun or inorganic compounds2) autotrophs (producers)3) heterotrophs (consumers)The relationships between PRODUCERS and CONSUMERS connect organisms into feeding networks based on who eats whom.
34Label the producers and consumers Food ChainLabel the producers and consumersDefinition: Shows energy flow from producers to consumersProducerConsumer(Herbivore)Consumer(Herbivore)Consumer(Carnivore)Consumer(Carnivore)
36Food WebsDefinition:A food web links all the food chains in an ecosystem together.A food web in a salt-marsh community.* Let’s take a look at the Heron….
37Trophic Levels Each step in a food chain/web= Trophic level. Tertiary ConsumerEach step in a food chain/web= Trophic level.Producers make up the first/primary layerConsumers make up the successive layers.Secondary ConsumerPrimary ConsumerProducers
38Ecological PyramidEcological Pyramids- shows amounts of energy or matter at each trophic level3 types: Energy, Biomass & Numbers pyramid.
39Energy Pyramid Shows how energy reduces by 90% each trophic level. Organisms use this 10 % of energy for life processes.The rest is lost as heat.
40Biomass Pyramid Biomass Pyramid: Shows the amount of living tissue in a trophic level expressed in grams per unit area.
41Inverted Biomass Pyramid in an Aquatic Ecosystem
42Pyramid of Numbers Pyramid of Numbers: Shows the # of organisms in a trophic level.
43Correct Answer? (A) Chemosynthesis Checkpoint 1:When organisms use chemical energy to produce carbohydrates, the process is called:ChemosynthesisAutosynthesisPhotosynthesisCorrect Answer? (A) Chemosynthesis
44Correct Answer? (C) Chemosynthetic Bacteria! Checkpoint 2:Which of the following organisms DO NOT NEED sunlight to live?TreesPhotosynthetic BacteriaChemosynthetic BacteriaAlgaeCorrect Answer? (C) Chemosynthetic Bacteria!But WHY??????
45Checkpoint 3: TRUE!!!! TRUE or FALSE? Algae are both producers and autotrophs.TRUE!!!!
46Correct Answer? (A) Food Web!!! Checkpoint 4:All the food chains in an ecosystem are linked together by a (an)Food WebTrophic LevelEcosystemCorrect Answer? (A) Food Web!!!
47Checkpoint 5:Only about 10 percent of the energy available within one trophic level is transferred to organisms at the next trophic level.Of the remaining energy, some of it is used for life’s processes and the rest is lost as what?????HEAT!!!!
48Checkpoint 6:In words, briefly describe the flow of energy among organisms in an ecosystem.HINT: Think feeding relationships!Energy is transferred from one organism to the next through trophic levels. Only 10% of the energy is transferred from level to level. The rest is lost as heat!
49Checkpoint 7:Explain the relationships in this food chain: omnivore, herbivore, and autotroph.Autotroph is an organism that creates its own energy using chemicals or sunlight. An organism that eats an autotroph is called an herbivore. An omnivore could eat either the herbivore OR the autotroph.
50Checkpoint 8:Refer to the “Salt-Marsh Food Web”, which shows a food web in the salt marsh. Choose one of the food chains within this web. Then, write a paragraph describing the feeding relationships among the organisms in the food chain.Hint: Use the terms producers, consumers, and decomposers ALONG with who eats whom in your description.(You may also draw them out as well)