Understanding the Energy Pyramid Environmental Science
Biology Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall MT: Ecology Energy Pyramid I will understand that in each link in a food web, some energy is stored in newly made structures and some is dissipated as heat, dissipation may be represented in an energy pyramid.
* Where does the energy for life come from? Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Sunlight! Sunlight is the main energy source for life on Earth – producers make sugar from it!
Producers/Autotroph Only plants, some algae, and certain bacteria can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use that energy to produce food. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Producers Energy From the Sun During photosynthesis, these autotrophs use light energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and sugar (glucose). CO 2 + H 2 O + sunlight C 6 H 12 O6 + O 2 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Consumers Organisms that rely on other organisms for their energy and food supply are called heterotrophs/consumers.
Feeding Relationships *How does energy flow through living systems? Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
*Energy flows through an ecosystem in one direction from the sun to autotrophs (producers) and then to heterotrophs (consumers). Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Producer1 Consumer2 consumer3 Consumer
Feeding Relationships Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Algae Zooplankton Small Fish Squid Shark producer 1 consumer 2 consumer 3 consumer 4 consumer
Feeding Relationships *Trophic Levels Each step in a food chain is called a trophic level. Producers make up the first trophic level. Consumers make up the second, third, or higher trophic levels. Each consumer depends on the trophic level below it for energy. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Energy Pyramids *How efficient is the transfer of energy among organisms in an ecosystem? Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Energy Pyramids *Only about 10 % of the energy available within one trophic level is transferred to organisms at the next trophic level. *90% of the energy is lost as heat (such as chemical reactions in your body during digestion and making new cell parts)! Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Energy Pyramid Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall *0.1% Third-level consumers *1% Second-level consumers *10% First-level consumers *100% Producers *Shows the amount of energy available at each trophic level.
Feeding Relationships Optional Evidence: This food web shows some of the feeding relationships in a salt-marsh community. Create an energy pyramid from one of the food chains in the picture. Label the amount of energy received from the tropic level before it and if it is a producer, consumer, etc. Also explain what is happening to energy that is lost (dissipated). Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Example of Energy pyramid Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Marsh Grass Grasshopper Mouse Marsh Hawk Producer 1 Consumer 2 Consumer 3 Consumer 100% energy from sun 10% energy from sun 1% energy from sun 0.1% energy from sun Cyanobacteria
Types of consumers Herbivore Carnivore Omnivore Detritivore Decomposer
Detrivores Also known as detritophages or detritus feeders or detritus eaters or saprophages, are heterotrophs that obtain nutrients by consuming detritus (decomposing plant and animal parts as well as organic fecal matter).heterotrophsnutrientsdetritusfecal matter They contribute to decomposition and the nutrient cycles. They should be distinguished from other decomposers, such as many species of bacteria and fungi which are unable to ingest discrete lumps of matter.decompositionnutrient cycles decomposersbacteria fungi The terms detritivore and decomposer are often used interchangeably.
Scavengers are typically not thought to be detritivores, as they generally eat large quantities of organic matter, but both detritivores and scavengers are specific cases of consumer-resource systems. Scavengersconsumer-resource systems
Scavengers Scavenging is both a carnivorous and herbivorous feeding behavior in which the scavenger feeds on dead and decaying organic matter present in its habitat.carnivorous herbivorousfeeding behavior The eating of carrion from the same species is referred to as cannibalism.cannibalism Scavengers play an important role in the ecosystem by consuming the dead animal and plant material. ecosystem
Difference between a Scavengers & Decomposer Decomposers break down organic matter while scavengers go around eating dead animals for food. An example of a decomposer is a fungus, and an example off a scavenger is a vulture.
Both decomposers and detritivores feed on the same diet, it does not necessarily mean that they are of the same species. Both decomposers and detritivores can be termed as heterotrophic, but it hardly implies that they are same. While they may have the same diet, there are some clear differences between the decomposers and detritivores.
The word “decomposer” is primarily used for beings that initiate the process of breakdown of dead or decaying organisms. The decomposers play a major part in the degeneration process of a dead organism. Detrivores vs Decomposer
Detritivores are actually a type of saprotrophs. The decomposers or saprotrophs can further be sub divided into groups like: fungi and detritivores. Detritivores vs Decomposer
End Show - or - Continue to: Click to Launch: Slide 26 of 41 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 3–2
End Show Slide 27 of 41 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 3–2 The main source of energy for life on Earth is a.organic chemical compounds. b.inorganic chemical compounds. c.sunlight. d.producers.
End Show Slide 28 of 41 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 3–2 How does a food web differ from a food chain? a.A food web contains a single series of energy transfers. b.A food web links many food chains together. c.A food web has only one trophic level. d.A food web shows how energy passes from producer to consumer.
End Show Slide 29 of 41 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 3–2 The amount of energy represented in each trophic level of consumers in an energy pyramid is about a.10% of the level below it. b.90% of the level below it. c.10% more than the level below it. d.90% more than the level below it.
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