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4.1 Chemical Energy and ATP Set up Cornell Notes on pg. 37 Topic: Chemical Energy and ATP Essential Question: How are some organisms able to survive without.

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Presentation on theme: "4.1 Chemical Energy and ATP Set up Cornell Notes on pg. 37 Topic: Chemical Energy and ATP Essential Question: How are some organisms able to survive without."— Presentation transcript:

1 4.1 Chemical Energy and ATP Set up Cornell Notes on pg. 37 Topic: Chemical Energy and ATP Essential Question: How are some organisms able to survive without sunlight and photosynthesis? 2.1 Atoms, Ions, and Molecules How are some organisms able to survive without sunlight and photosynthesis? 4.1 Chemical Energy and ATP Key Concept: All cells need chemical energy

2 4.1 Chemical Energy and ATP 5 top missed questions

3 4.1 Chemical Energy and ATP The phospholipid bilayer of a cellular membrane is shown in the diagram above. Active transport is the primary function of the structure labeled "A". "B". "C". "D".

4 4.1 Chemical Energy and ATP The phospholipid bilayer of a cellular membrane is shown in the diagram above. Active transport is the primary function of the structure labeled "A". "B". "C". "D".

5 4.1 Chemical Energy and ATP Which of the following statements is true about cell structure? A.Cells are enclosed by a thin, single layer of phospholipids and protein molecules B.Cells are enclosed by a solid layer, or cell wall, for support C.Cells are enclosed with semipermeable membranes D.Cell casings allow molecules to pass unhindered in or out of the cell

6 4.1 Chemical Energy and ATP Which of the following statements is true about cell structure? A.Cells are enclosed by a thin, single layer of phospholipids and protein molecules B.Cells are enclosed by a solid layer, or cell wall, for support C.Cells are enclosed with semipermeable membranes D.Cell casings allow molecules to pass unhindered in or out of the cell

7 4.1 Chemical Energy and ATP The table above shows the characteristics of four different single–celled organisms. Which of the organism(s) are prokaryotic? organism W and organism Z organism X and organism Y organism X only organism Y only

8 4.1 Chemical Energy and ATP The table above shows the characteristics of four different single–celled organisms. Which of the organism(s) are prokaryotic? organism W and organism Z organism X and organism Y organism X only organism Y only

9 4.1 Chemical Energy and ATP Osmosis occurs in living organisms as water moves across the cellular membrane. An environment is hypotonic when the concentration of solutes in the environment is less than the concentration of solutes inside the cell. In hypotonic environments, water flows inside and outside the cell at equal rates. from the cell into the environment. from the environment into the cell. from high concentration of solutes to low concentration of solutes.

10 4.1 Chemical Energy and ATP Osmosis occurs in living organisms as water moves across the cellular membrane. An environment is hypotonic when the concentration of solutes in the environment is less than the concentration of solutes inside the cell. In hypotonic environments, water flows inside and outside the cell at equal rates. from the cell into the environment. from the environment into the cell. from high concentration of solutes to low concentration of solutes.

11 4.1 Chemical Energy and ATP The smooth endoplasmic reticulum ____________ A.modifies lipids B.modifies proteins C.synthesizes ribosomes D.synthesizes proteins

12 4.1 Chemical Energy and ATP The smooth endoplasmic reticulum ____________ A.modifies lipids B.modifies proteins C.synthesizes ribosomes D.synthesizes proteins

13 4.1 Chemical Energy and ATP KEY CONCEPT All cells need chemical energy.

14 4.1 Chemical Energy and ATP P. 36 ATP and ADP picture

15 4.1 Chemical Energy and ATP Top of pg. 36 Do energy drinks or power bars do something different from any other foods you eat? –If so, what do they do? (how do they affect you?) – What causes them to do this? (ingredients?) They may contain certain types of carbohydrates that can be used more quickly and so supply energy faster. Note: An energy bar provides no more energy than a bagel or banana

16 4.1 Chemical Energy and ATP California Standard 1.f- Know that useable energy is captured from sunlight by chloroplasts and is stored through the synthesis of sugar from carbon dioxide.

17 4.1 Chemical Energy and ATP Ch. 4 In a Nutshell… *The cells of ALL organisms need chemical energy for ALL of their processes. Plants absorb energy from sunlight –Some of that energy is stored in sugars (Photosynthesis) Cells break down sugars to produce usable chemical energy for their functions (Cellular Respiration) *Without organisms that make sugars, living things on Earth could not survive

18 4.1 Chemical Energy and ATP Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

19 4.1 Chemical Energy and ATP ATP transfers energy from the breakdown of food molecules to fuel all cellular functions The chemical energy used for most cell processes is carried by adenosine triphosphate aka ATP. Remember from Ch. 2: Energy is released when bonds break! –When the unstable 3 rd phosphate breaks off- A blast of energy is released!

20 4.1 Chemical Energy and ATP phosphate removed + - –Adenosine diphosphate aka ADP is a lower-energy molecule than ATP with only 2 phosphates. –ADP is changed into ATP when a phosphate group is added

21 4.1 Chemical Energy and ATP ATP and ADP + - Bonds break- releasing energy Draw and label pg. 36

22 4.1 Chemical Energy and ATP Molecules in food store chemical energy in their bonds. –Carbohydrates and lipids (fats) are the most important energy sources in foods you eat

23 4.1 Chemical Energy and ATP Foods that you eat do NOT contain ATP. –First the food must be digested, which breaks down food into smaller molecules that can make ATP.

24 4.1 Chemical Energy and ATP Carbohydrates are the molecules most commonly broken down to make ATP. triphosphateadenosine diphosphate tri=3 di=2 ATP ADP

25 4.1 Chemical Energy and ATP Fats store the most energy. –80 percent of the energy in your body is stored in fat Proteins are least likely to be broken down to make ATP. (Fats)

26 4.1 Chemical Energy and ATP Point to Ponder (Pg. 36) If we get our energy from food…. –Where does our food get its energy? -Hint: Your food is probably a plant or animal Plants get their energy from the sun Animals get their energy from the plants they eat Ipso Facto: We all get our energy by using sunlight through PHOTOSYNTHESIS!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

27 4.1 Chemical Energy and ATP A few types of organisms do not need sunlight and photosynthesis as a source of energy. Some organisms live in places that never get sunlight. In chemosynthesis, chemical energy is used to build carbon-based molecules. –uses chemical energy instead of light energy

28 4.1 Chemical Energy and ATP Chemosynthesis Video


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